The Long Road to the London Inn.

As is sometimes the case, this photograph was incorrectly identified on the website a number of years ago. Recently with the help of a Facebook group member, the correct name and biography have finally been appended to the image. This 1909 dated photograph depicts Lieutenant Cuthbert Fairbanks-Smith of the Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge’s Own).

Cuthbert Fairbanks-Smith

Above: Dated 14 February 1909, this trimmed photograph records the likeness of Lieutenant Cuthbert Fairbanks-Smith of Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) not long before his deployment to West Africa. Photo: T. Garcia collection.

Interestingly much of the information presented here is derived from Fairbanks-Smith’s Canadian officer’s Record of Services papers recording his time with the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) during the Great War. These papers record in far greater detail Fairbanks-Smith’s entire military career than his corresponding British Record of Services do.

Fairbanks-Smith was born on 18 March 1885 at Lee, Kent to Lewis Arthur Smith and Edith Fairbanks. Lewis Arthur Smith was the vicar of Christ Church at Lee. Educated at Bradfield College in Berkshire. Prior to December 1904, he was already holding an appointment of 2nd lieutenant in the 3rd Volunteer Battalion of Princess Charlotte of Wales (Berkshire Regiment). He is mentioned as speaking both French and Hindustani.

Commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge’s Own) in December 1904, he was promoted lieutenant in December 1906.  Fairbanks-Smith appears to have been one of those officers that spent much of his time on detached duty away from his regiment. He was in South Africa from February 1905 until February 1907. After a little over two years at the regimental depot, he joined the West African Field Force, from April 1909 until April 1910, seeing action in southern Nigeria earning the Africa General Service Medal with clasp. He returned home briefly before heading out to India taking up a staff appointment with the 8th Lucknow Division under General Sir Bryan Mahon, KCVO, DSO. In 1912 he was appointed acting deputy assistant adjutant general of the 8th Division, holding the appointment until 1913 when he resigned his commission (The London Gazette, 2 December 1913). While in India he was the recipient of the 1910 George V Coronation Medal with “Delhi” clasp.

West Africa Field Force 1902

Above: A  c. 1902 photo of a unit of the 2nd Nigeria Regiment, West African Field Force. Although taken a few years prior to Fairbanks-Smith’s arrival in the colony, the troops under his command would have looked much the same. Photo: National Army Museum.

Appointed temporary captain on 22 September 1914, Fairbanks-Smith embarked for Canada at Southampton on 20 December 1914. Attached to Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry, he was appointed temporary major, antedated to 18 November 1914. He deployed with the CEF and remained with until he was struck off strength on 25 October 1915 after he was appointed temporary major with the Durham Light Infantry (London Gazette, 18 September 1915).

According to an article in the 2 February 1915 issue of The Gazette (Montreal), Fairbanks-Smith was one of the first members CEF to go into action (at least as early as December 1914). In the article, he describes the horrid conditions in water-filled trenches, the pluck of the newly arrived Canadians, and the poor sanitary habits of the French troops. He also recalls a near miss when a German bullet passed between his head and that of a Canadian sergeant, missing both men by mere inches.

On 9 January 1915, he was admitted to No. 7 Stationary Hospital, Boulogne with a dislocated semi-lunar cartilage of his right knee. The injury incapacitated him for six weeks and required him being invalided back to England. The 2 February 1915 of the Montreal Gazette states that Fairbanks-Smith was injured while traversing some trenches in almost total darkness. He fell into a trench filled with German dead, dislocating his knee and remained there for two days under intermittent shell-fire until recovered by men of his unit.

PPCLI Battle

Above: The Canadians at Ypres by William Barnes Wollen. The painting depicts Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry in action against German troops at Ypres in May 1915. Fairbanks-Smith was in all likelihood present at the battle since he would not transfer to the Durham Light Infantry until later that year. Image: PPCLI Regimental Museum.

In spite of an apparently good start tracing Fairbanks-Smith’s activities during the Great War, the trail goes cold after his transfer to the Durham Light Infantry (DLI) in late 1915. As of now, I have been unable to locate his medal index card or entry in the medal rolls themselves. It can be noted that I have found both for his brothers Lionel (Lieutenant, 7/Durham Light Infantry), Oswald (Major, 9th Hodson’s Horse, Anglo-Indian Army), and Norman (Surgeon Lieutenant, R.N. HMS Benbow). Nothing has been found informing us as to which battalion of the DLI he was serving with or whether he remained with DLI for the duration of the war. The London Gazette has proved less than helpful. The above-mentioned article from the Gazette of Montreal states that Fairbanks-Smith was at the front by December 1914. This would have qualified him for the 1914-15 Star and the British War and Victory Medals. Research continues.

Cuthbert Fairbanks-Smith married Miss Gladys Frances Clara Ward at Kensington, London on 27 July 1909. He was a Mason in good standing, initiated into the British Lodge in 1917. For a brief time, he was a first-class cricketer for Somerset playing two matches in 1921.

Well-traveled after the war I have found a good number of ship’s passenger manifests showing him making numerous trips to Canada, the United States, and India. Interestingly his listed occupations on these manifests include studio executive, director and motion picture executive. These leave little doubt as to his post-war career.

A 23 February 1932 article in the Times Colonist (Victoria, British Colombia) mentions Fairbanks-Smith as being employed as RKO Studios’ comedy script supervisor. At the time the article was written, Fairbanks-Smith was in Victoria scouting for a new studio location. Apparently much taken with the Hollywood studio model, the article rather bluntly stated his opinion of most British studios: “…that the best thing for them would be a good fire with all the engines busy elsewhere.” A slightly earlier article in the Cincinnati Enquirer (28 December 1931) mentions Fairbanks-Smith as being the managing director of the then newly formed Empire Films, Inc. (mentioned elsewhere as British Empire Films, Inc.). During all this Fairbanks-Smith never left his military experiences far behind. In the many newspaper articles relating to his studio career, his name was almost always prefaced with his old army rank of major.

A final note. In the 29 October 1936 issue of the Monrovia News-Post (Monrovia, California) a certain Major C. Fairbanks-Smith is mentioned as being a two-year resident of Monrovia and the proprietor of the “swank” restaurant London Inn located in nearby Pasadena, California. He is mentioned as also owning a highly regarded pheasant farm in Monrovia which supplied his London Inn with its signature course. Is this Major Fairbank-Smith the same man in the above photograph? Our Fairbanks-Smith was a native of Kensington, London so the restaurant’s name makes perfect sense. He was also employed for a time in Hollywood which is only about twenty miles as the crow flies west of Monrovia.

London Inn Menue Pasadena Post 31 October 1936

Above: A menu for Fairbank-Smith’s London Inn restaurant that appeared in the 31 October 1936 issue of the Pasadena Post. Source:

London Inn Building

Above: A current view of 975 East Green Street in Pasadena, California. This is the same building that housed Major C. Fairbanks-Smith’s “swank” London Inn during the 1930s. The building’s upper story still retains Tudor-style half-timbering that probably dates from its day as a British-themed restaurant. Photo: Google Street View.

Major Cuthbert Fairbanks-Smith passed away at the age of sixty-three on 25 May 1948 and is buried at St. Mary’s Churchyard, Peaslake, Surrey.

A Banshee’s Bombay Bowler

Note: A special thanks to Robin Adair of for kindly providing digital copies of the 88th Squadron History and the Burma Banshee Combat Book as well for the use photos from the website’s galleries.

When one considers an iconic item such as this pith helmet perhaps the first image top would pop into the mind’s eye might be that of Henry Morton Stanley on his epic quest to find Dr. Livingstone or Ernest Hemingway on one of his many safaris in the shadow of Kilimanjaro. Certainly, a World War II United States Army Air Force fighter pilot may not be the first person to come to mind when one considers a “Bombay Bowler” such as this example.

Pith helmets as they are most commonly called were first adopted by the British in India during the mid-1800s by both civilians and military personnel. By the turn of the century, their use had become almost universal in hot, tropical and summer climates. The U.S. was no exception to the trend and “sun helmets” as they were known in U.S. military parlance could be seen being worn on the western frontier during the later stages of the Indian Wars. Various versions remained in U.S. military inventories until as late as the 1980s.

Our example was recently purchased via an online auction and is an excellent example of a mid-20th Century “Bombay Bowler”, so-called because the style gained popularity in British India at the time. Of local Indian manufacture, it is very lightweight and of excellent quality. It was found with a number of other artifacts associated with the 80th Fighter Group (FG), the “Burma Banshees”.

Pelland Helmet Right Left

Above: The Indian manufactured British military pith helmet worn by Lt. Earl Roy Pelland while serving in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations with the 88th Fighter Squadron, 80th Fighter Group, “The Burma Banshees” from 1943 to 1944. Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

Unmarked as to manufacturer, the helmet bears a gold U.S. Army officer’s eagle insignia on its front and the name “E. Pelland” in black ink on the green fabric lining under the rear brim. As is often the case I did a quick online search prior to purchasing the helmet. I quickly began to find information seemingly tied to the helmet’s former owner and came across a January 2006 obituary an Earl R. Pelland (1922-2006) which stated the deceased had been a member of the 80th FG. This was a good start.

Pelland Helmet FrontAbove: Front view of Pelland’s helmet showing the gold U.S. Army officer’s insignia. Showing hard use in the tropical climate on Assam, India, and Burma, and in spite of the passage of more than 75 years, the lightweight helmet is still in remarkably good condition. Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

Pelland Helmet Name

Above: The underside of Pelland’s helmet showing his first initial and last name on the underside of the ream brim. Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

In spite of it being relatively recent history, researching WWII veterans through official records is problematic. This is due to the paucity of records resulting from the catastrophic 1973 fire at the National Personnel Records Center (NPRC) in St. Louis, Missouri. Over 80% of the army personnel records from between 1912 and 1960 were destroyed in the fire. So other sources would have to be consulted.

A quick online search of WWII enlistment records showed only one E. Pelland serving in the U.S. military during the war – the above mentioned Earl R. Pelland – who enlisted in the army at Chicago, Illinois on March 5, 1942. Interestingly a 1946 U.S. naturalization document for Earl Pelland also turned up during the search which indicates that he was a Canadian citizen at the time he was serving in the U.S. Army. This same document gives his middle name as Roy and lists his wartime overseas service as extending from May 10, 1943, to December 14, 1944.

Being pretty certain that Earl Roy Pelland was the former owner of this helmet, what else could be found out regarding his life and specifically his military service during the Second World War?  As previously mentioned Pelland was born at Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada on March 11, 1922, the son of Roy Joseph Pelland and Beatrice Cecilia Gustafson. The family moved to Minnesota while Earl Roy was still an infant, later moving to the Chicago area of Illinois. He attended Austin High School in Chicago where He was a member of the ROTC, graduating in the summer of 1940. His senior class yearbook list his class nickname as “Turk”, mentions his as being “Intelligent, handsome and sincere.”, with a career in music as his ambition.

Earl Pelland Austin High Yearbook 1940 Maroon and White

Above: Earl Roy Pelland as he appeared in the 1940 senior high school yearbook for Chicago’s Austin High School. Source:

Pelland had been attending college for about a year when he enlisted in the army on May 5, 1942, in Chicago. Little if anything can be found regarding Pelland’s basic and early flight training. Much of what is known about Pelland’s time in the 88th FS comes from the unit’s wartime 88th Squadron History. Already a 2nd lieutenant, he was assigned to the 88th Fighter Squadron (FS) on December 26, 1942, at Mitchell Field on Long Island. There as part of the 80th Fighter Group (FG), the 88th FS was conducting advanced training in P-47 “Thunderbolt’ fighters. On April 7, 1943, Pelland was rushed to Melville, New Jersey for last-minute night flying instruction – the squadron was readying for deployment overseas.

On April 20th the 88th received the unwelcome news that the squadron was being converted to P-40 “Warhawk” fighters at the last minute. Although a good aircraft, the P-40 was older, slower. Less heavily armed and generally less robust than the P-47. The men were not happy with the change. The switch also gave Pelland and his squadron mates a hint as to where they were soon to be deployed. By this time the Far East was one of the last theaters of operations where the P-40 was still being widely used.

Last-minute training in the P-40 complete, the 80th FG (comprised of the 88th, 89th, and 90th Fighter Squadrons) departed Mitchell Field for New Jersey, where amidst great confusion they boarded the luxury liner – now converted to a troopship – RMS Mauretania. Their destination, India.

The voyage took them to Karachi, India (now Pakistan) via Rio de Janeiro, Cape Town, Madagascar, Colombo, and Bombay. Arriving at their destination on June 28th, 1943. The 88th FS would than cross India eastward towards their final destination in Assam, India. The 88th FS was broken up into three flights (“A”, “B”, and “C”) and Pelland seems to have spent most, if not all of his time overseas a member of “C” flight.

Earl Pelland

Above: Lt. Earl Roy Pelland in a signed photo presented to fellow squadron member Robert Rowntree. Note the “CBI” theater of operations patch on Pelland’s shoulder. Source: Robert Rowntree Collection/

While in the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations (CBI) the 88th FS along with its parent group the 80th FG would be assigned to the 10th Air Force.

It is uncertain how many missions Earl Pelland flew while in the CBI. The squadron history does not go into that level of individual detail and the whereabouts of his flight logs (if still extant) is unknown. Based on information in the squadron history the missions he did take part in included fighter sweeps in search of enemy aircraft, ground support/attack missions and escorting, cargo flights over the “Hump”. Pelland was not credited with any aerial victories during his tour overseas. In the Burma Banshee Combat Book, a souvenir scrapbook published by the 80th FG in 1945, Pelland is mentioned as having been awarded the Air Medal. A common criteria for the award of the Air Medal during World War II was the successful completion of twenty combat missions. So it may be assumed that Pelland completed at least that number of missions.

P-40Ns 88th FS

Above: P-40N “Warhawk” fighters of the 88th FS. The planes all wear the unit’s unique skull nose art which was unfortunately abandoned when the squadron transitioned to P-47 “Thunderbolt” fighters later in the war. Source: U.S. Army Air Force/Public Domain.

For some time “C” flight was stationed at Lillabari and later Shingbwiyang in the Assam region of India. At Lillabari on December 14, 1943, Pelland was sidelined with a second case of fever – probably malaria. By January 11, 1944, he had recovered enough to leave for detached service in Calcutta. On February 7, 1944, Earl Pelland was promoted, 1st Lieutenant. In late June and early July, the 88th began happily to replace its battle-worn P-40s with new P-47s – the planes the squadron had originally trained to go into combat with. On November 6, Pelland and five other officers left on the long trip back to Karachi to ferry more, new P-47s to their squadron, arriving back on the 18th.

P-47 88th FS Weinheimer-Collection

Above. One of the 88th FS new P-47 fighters. Huge, fast, heavily armed and extremely rugged, the P-47s were much-appreciated replacements for the battle-worn P-40s. Source: H. A. Weinheimer Collection/www, 

Upon his return a few surprises awaited Pelland. First, he has the opportunity to meet actor Pat O’Brien and actress Jinx Falkenburg who were visiting the squadron while touring with the USO. The second, and by far much more welcome surprise were papers ordering Pelland home. The 88th Squadron History states that Pelland departed for the U.S. on November 20. The History also mentions Pelland’s promise to his fellow flyers to eat a big juicy steak on their behalves when he got home. He apparently arrived back in the U.S. on or around December 14, 1944. He was probably discharged just prior to or just after the end of the war.

Jinx Falkenburg to Earl Weinheimer-Collection

Above: Actress Jink Falkenburg poses on the wing of an 88th FS P-47 fighter during a visit with a USO troupe to the squadron’s forward base. She coincidentally signed the photo to someone named Earl. Could this have been our own Earl Roy Pelland? Source: H. A. Weinheimer Collection/www,

Earl Roy Pelland was granted U.S. citizenship in 1947. His occupation at the time was listed as the manager of an automobile gas service station. He would later own a car dealership. Although he would never pursue his high school dream of a career in music, he would become a member of the Arlington Heights Art Guild.

Pelland Medals

Above: A reconstruction Lt. Earl Roy Pelland’s medal group as it would have appeared at the end of the war. From left: the Air Medal, the American Campaign Medal. the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with at least one campaign star, and the World War Two Victory Medal. Source: Edward T. Garcia.

Earl Pelland married Mary Louise Chapman in 1948 and the couple would have two children. After the passing of Mary Lou in 1987, Earl Pelland would remarry to Therese “Tess” Boukal in 1990.  Earl Roy Pelland passed away at the age of 83 on January 7, 2006, at Wheeling, Illinois.


Postmark USS Arizona Part II – Update

Note: Originally posted on December 7, 2018, the service history of Herman Lincoln Schuman has been greatly added to since I acquired copies of his service papers from the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis. Additionally, corrections have been made to his familial relationships.

Not long ago I came across this mid-1930s postal cover not long ago. It was postmarked onboard the USS Arizona and two things caught my eye. One was the hometown of the addressee Marjorie Lois Ogle – Glendora, California – which also happens to be where I live. The second was the fact that it was not a commemorative/souvenir issue but a cover from a personal letter sent by a member of the crew of the Arizona apparently to his girlfriend or fiancé on March 7, 1935. At the time Arizona was moored at San Pedro, California with the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Battle Fleet.

The cover (and sadly now missing its letter) was mailed Arizona crew member Herman Lincoln Schuman and needless to say I began investigating his story even before purchasing the cover. The uneasy question in the back of my mind was as to whether Schuman was still aboard the Arizona six years later at Pearl Harbor on the Day of Infamy. Fortunately, I was able to acquire a copy of Schuman’s service file – after a considerable wait – which provided many details of his naval career and ultimate fate.

Schuman Arizona Cover Front

Above: Addressed to his future bride to be Marjorie Ogle, the envelope to Storekeeper 1st Class Herman Lincoln Schuman’s letter is postmarked March 7, 1935, onboard the USS. Arizona. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Herman Lincoln Schuman was born in Connecticut on February 12, 1912, the son of Herman R. and Lydia Schuman He had at least one sibling, a sister named Frances. Schuman enlisted in the navy as apprentice seaman on April 3, 1929, while still technically underage, doing so with his father’s permission.

Schuman Arizona Cover Back

Above: The reverse side of the envelope which once held Schuman’s letter to his future wife identifying the sender as a member of the ill-fated battleship’s crew. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

His first assignment was onboard the USS Mississippi. He was appointed bugler second class on August 19, 1929. He would serve on the Mississippi until March 1931, reporting aboard Arizona on the 23rd of that month.

Interestingly his records contain a letter to the U.S. Navy from his sister dated July 7, 1931, enquiring as to the whereabouts of her brother. Apparently, Schuman was less than diligent in writing home and his family had no idea as to where he was stationed. A return letter from a Commander I. H. Hayfield stated that Schuman had been informed of his sister’s letter and promised to write home regularly.

The dates of Shuman’s advancement in rating were: Apprentice Seaman – July 19, 1929, Seaman 2nd Class (Sea2c) – August 5, 1929, Seaman 1st Class (Sea1c) – June 1, 1934, Store Keeper 3rd Class (SK3c) – February 16, 1936, Store Keeper 2nd Class (SK2c) – August 8, 1936, Store Keeper 1st Class (SK1c) – November 16, 1940.

Schuman was cited twice in 1931 for rater minor infractions. The first on Oct 24 for the improper wearing of his uniform while on liberty, and the second on October 30 for hanging his clothes in an unauthorized place.

In early 1934 would have the chance to rub elbows with Hollywood royalty when the Arizona was used as a setting for the James Cagney film Here Comes the Navy, which co-starred Pat O’Brian.

Schuman Arizona Guns

Above: A sidelight of history. Actors Frank McHugh and James Cagney polish two of the 14-inch guns of the Arizona’s turret number one in Here Comes the Navy (left). The same two 14-inch guns as they appear today on the wreck of the Arizona. One wonders how much of the filming Herman Lincoln Schuman was able to take in. Photos: Vitaphone Pictures/National Park Service.

In the later part of 1935, Schuman would have taken part in fleet exercises and made port at Balboa, Panama. Budget cuts led to the ship being held in port for good portions of 1936 -1938. In 1937 Schuman would marry Marjorie Ogle and the new couple took an apartment in Long Beach, California.

Schuman’s new bride was born at Enders, Nebraska on July 24, 1917, to George Washington Ogle and Orrilla Vennie Cooney. The Ogle family headed west in the early 1920s, settling in Glendora.  Marjorie’s mother died on May 5, 1923. Exactly how a blue water sailor like Herman Schuman and Marjorie, a girl from the orange growing inland town of Glendora came to meet is for now part of the story lost to history.

Fleet exercises took Schuman and Arizona to Hawaiian waters in 1938 and on April 28, 1939, he was awarded the Navy Good Conduct Medal. More fleet exercises in 1940 and then it was then on to Bremerton, Washington for a long-needed overhaul which was completed in January 1941. The Arizona would make one final visit to Long Beach, California in June – July 1941. While Herman and Marjorie would have had a long-overdue reunion, little did the couple know it would be the last time they would ever see one another. He would be one of the 1,177 officers and men killed on board on December 7, 1941, His body was never recovered.

USS Arizona

Above: The USS Arizona off the coast of Southern California during exercises in the mid-1930s. Photo: Department of the Navy.

His service records state that Schuman was entitled to the Purple Heart, the Navy Good Conduct Medal, the American Defense Service Medal with Fleet Clasp, and the World War II Victory Medal. To this list, I believe the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with one service star for December 7, 1941, should be added. (See below)

Schuman Medals

As of now, I have been unable to locate any photograph of Herman Lincoln Schuman.

In Search of Color-Sergeant Middleton

A great challenge for the genealogical or historical researcher can be attempting to identify the individual in an otherwise unidentified period or historical photograph. Naturally, if the person in question is notable of famous in their own right much of the challenge can often be mitigated. On the other hand, if the pictured person in more or less unknown today the prospect of actually identifying the can be daunting, to say the least. The following is something of a case study in the latter process.

The photograph in question (pictured below) is a cabinet photograph (often styled cabinet card) of a uniformed soldier taken in Toronto, Canada. Based on the finely embossed card mount and the image’s matte, finely grained grayscale image I could easily place its creation date to the very late 1890s or early 1900s. A circa 1900 date seemed a good starting point.

Color Sergeant Middleton

Above: The unidentified cabinet photograph of a Canadain color-sergeant that is the focus of the investigation. Photographer: Shorey’s New Studio, Toronto. Source: Collection of

The next step I took was to attempt identification of the soldier’s rank, regiment or branch of service. Based on the assumed date and known Canadian location, there is little doubt that the man in question was a member of the Canadian Militia (the Canadian Army would not become known as such until 1940). His rank was quickly evident to me as being that of color-sergeant.* During the latter part of the Victorian era, color-sergeants of infantry wore rank insignia that consisted of three inverted gold chevrons with crossed Union Jack flags topped off with a crown. Examining this sergeant’s chevrons quickly told me that he was wearing pre-1902 rank insignia. The crown device told the story.

During the reign of Queen Victoria almost all military rank insignia that contained a crown that stylistically is referred to as a Queen’s Crown. After the coronation of Edward VII, this part of the emblems was changed to the so-called King’s Crown. (See below). This sergeant’s rank device in clearly of the earlier variety.

Color Sergeant Rank

Above: Two examples of the British style infantry color-sergeant rank insignia. That on the left is the Victorian-era variety with the Queen’s Crown. After 1902 the crown emblem changed to the King’s Crown (right). The differences are subtle but important in dating photographs like the one in this investigation.

Next came putting a name to his battalion/regiment. Canadian infantry (rifle battalions differed) units at the time generally wore the same pattern tunic which appears to have been based in large part on the 1877-79 British tunic. His cap and collar badges were of the “bursting grenade” type that in infantry context denoted membership in a fusilier of grenadier battalion/regiment. Generally, Canadian militia units were raised locally so the search for a Toronto fusilier or grenadier unit was on.

Looking through various print and online sources I was unable to find any Toronto based units designated fusiliers. On the other hand, I was able to identify one styled as grenadiers – the 10th Regiment (Royal Grenadiers). Thus far we had a Canadian Militia color-sergeant, probably a member of the 10th Regiment (Royal Grenadiers) who was photographed sometime around 1900 at Toronto.


Above: Identifying our subject’s regimental affiliation was greatly helped by locating a digital copy of The Royal Grenadiers: A Regimental History of the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Active Militia of Canada. At left is a detail of our subject photograph and at right in that of Color-Sergeant D. McHugh of the 10/Royal Grenadiers. The uniforms appear to be a spot-on match. McHugh wears the Edward VII Coronation Medal, which fits with the book’s 1904 publication date.

Looking over the details of the image one’s eyes are quickly drawn to the sergeant’s single medal. Medals can provide a wealth of information if enough detail can be made out. There were several distinct categories of medalic awards that can be seen in period photographs. Orders and decorations presented for valor or distinguished service, campaign medals for participation in various wars and conflicts, jubilee or coronation medals for taking part in those royal celebrations. Quite often the specific medal in a given photograph is too indistinct to positively identify with any great certainty. Fortunately, this was not the case in this instance.

Under 8x magnification, the sergeant’s medal was easy to make out and a quick thumb through my dogged-eared copy of Medal Yearbook showed it to be Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee Medal (1897). This seemingly small detail would provide the key to bringing all the other hints together.

Jubilee Medal

Above: At left is a close-up detail of the medal pictured in our subject photograph. At right is a modern photograph of the 1897 Victorian Diamond Jubilee Medal.

The Diamond Jubilee Medal was awarded to military personnel from throughout the British Empire who in 1897 took part in events commemorating Queen Victoria’s sixtieth year on the throne. Imperial military contingents which took part in the Jubilee were usually made up of officers and non-commissioned officers from various units who had exemplary records of service. These contingents would normally be made up of men from a number of different units. Canada’s selection was no different.

As specified in Special General Order 59 (12 May 1897), Canada’s contingent would consist of 157 officers and non-commissioned officers from at least forty separate units. The specific copy of the General Order I referenced listed all of the officers by name and rank but only supplied the number of NCOs from each named unit. Even so, it told me that four NCOs from the10th Regiment (Royal Grenadiers) took part in the Jubilee. The window of possibilities was narrowing indeed.

The next obvious task was to find the names and ranks of those four Royal Grenadiers. I was able to find a complete online copy of The Royal Grenadiers: A Regimental History of the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Active Militia of Canada by Captain Ernest J. Chambers, Toronto, 1904 via google books and the sought after names were included in the text. A total of five members of the regiment took part in the Jubilee: Lieut.-Col. Mason, Color-Sergeant Middleton, Sergeants Hall, and Noble, and Corporal Clarke. As for the subject of the photograph Lieut.-Col. Mason could be quickly ruled out. That leaves four possibilities, Color-Sergeant Middleton, Sergeants Hall and Noble, and Corporal Clarke. Sergeant Noble is pictured in The Royal Grenadiers: A Regimental History of the 10th Infantry Regiment of the Active Militia of Canada (by then promoted Machine-Gun Sergeant) and was clearly not the man in our photograph so he could also be ruled out.

At this point, I should probably digress as to the possible reason this photograph was taken in the first place. At the time photography had become quite a commonplace and accessible to a very wide cross-section of society. At the same time though by no means as ubiquitous as it is in our selfie-obsessed world today. While no longer the novelty it once was, having one’s photograph taken in a studio setting was still usually reserved to commemorate some singular or special event. For a soldier, this might include commemorating his enlistment, a recent promotion, an overseas deployment or being presented with a medal or similar distinction.

Based on the above, my guess at this point was that the casus belli behind this particular photograph was the subject’s return home and receipt of the jubilee medal in 1897. This coupled with the fact that neither of the above mentioned Sergeant Hall or Corporal Clarke are mentioned as ever being promoted color-sergeant in The Royal Grenadiers seems to narrow down the identity of our soldier to that of Color-Sergeant Middleton.

To clinch the identity I need to find a confirmed photograph of Middleton for comparison but so far one has eluded me.  While he is mentioned several times in the text of The Royal Grenadiers, no photos of him were included.

Color-Sergeant Middleton – actually Henry James Middleton – had a long and very distinguished military career in the Canadian forces that spanned two wars. This part of his story will be covered in a future posting.

*Having conducted similar research for more than twenty years there was no need for me to look this up. For those less familiar with the subject of British and Common Wealth rank insignia there is a wealth of information available both in print and online describing the myriad of enlisted rank insignia worn at the time.

Tragedy at the Fallelie Canal*


Above: Private No. 4533 Arthur Ponder of the 2nd Battalion, The Suffolk Regiment who drowned at the Fallelie Canal* in Hyderabad on 20 June 1902. Photo: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

Cabinet Photograph
Unknown Photographer
Hyderabad,  India
c. 1902

As noted on the printed captions pasted to the lower part of the above photograph’s mounts, No. 4479 Private Alfred Richardson drowned at Hyderabad while attempting to save the life of No. 4533 Arthur Ponder who had somehow become distressed in the same canal. While I have been unable to locate the service records – in many cases service records for men who died while in service no longer exist – for either of these two soldiers but I did obtain certified copies the death certificates for both men which established to which regiment – 2/Suffolk – they both belonged, the exact location where the accident occurred – the Fallelie Canal, as well as their ages – both 23 8/12 years old.

How the tragedy unfolded is lost to history but had Richardson been successful he could quite possibly have been awarded a lifesaving medal such as those issued for such actions by the Royal Humane Society. Had his action been successful and had it taken place while on active duty in the face of the enemy he may have been recommended for the Victoria Cross as Private Samuel Wassall of the 80th Regiment was in the aftermath of the disaster at Isandlwana during the Anglo-Zulu War of 1879.

While it is possible that an account of this event made still be found in a regimental history, these two photographs may well be the only reminders of this long ago and all but forgotten episode of tragedy and courage.

Even though Richardson’s and Ponder’s actual service records are no longer extant, some details of the military careers and family life can be gleaned from the Army Registers of Deceased Soldiers’ Effects 1901-1929. These ledgers were compiled mainly to settle the financial accounts of deceased soldiers but also contain such information and place of birth, next of kin, date of enlistment, regimental number, civilian occupation and date, and place of death.

Ponder Richardson Effects

Above: Ponder’s and Richardson’s entries in the Record of Deceased Soldiers’ Effects. These entries provide valuable links to additional information on these two unfortunate soldiers. Source: National Army Museum; Chelsea, London.

Private Arthur Ponder was born about 1879 at Great Cornard, Sudbury, the youngest of three children of David and Ellen Ponder. The younger Ponder attested with the 2nd Suffolks on 28 December 1896. After his untimely death, Private Arthur Ponder’s army account was settled for a total of £9-18-10d with £6 of that being what appears to have been a death gratuity. His father David was listed as the beneficiary.

Private Alfred Richardson was born about 1879 at Sawston, Cambridgeshire to George and Amelia Richardson. In the 1881 Census for Sawston Alfred is shown with a middle or nickname of “Willie”. He had attested with the 2nd Suffolks on 28 October 1896 and left his father George a total of £9-18-7d


Above: No. 4479 Private Alfred Richardson of the 2/Suffolk Regiment who died while attempting to save the life of Private Arthur Ponder. Photo: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

Cabinet Photograph
Unknown Photographer
Hyderabad, India
c. 1902

*The correct placename spelling of Fallelie Canal is uncertain. The spelling appears as such in Ponder’s and Richardson’s death certificates but a transcription error may have worked its way into these documents. An online search for the location of their deaths under this placename had negative results.

Research Project – Company Sergeant Major Walter Anniss

My research projects almost always begin with an old photograph, medal or document. Gleaning what I can from the image or object, I attempt to build on the limited information and bring its hidden story back to life.

Walter Anniss was born at Balham, Surrey on 26 February 1876 the son of Robert and Elizabeth Anniss. He received his education at Church School at Isleworth.

He enlisted as No. 3692 in the 1st Battalion the Duke of Wellington’s West Riding Regiment for twelve years on 30 January 1893. At the time of his enlistment, he was described as being 5 feet 5 3/4 inches tall, weighing 117 pounds with hazel eyes and dark brown hair. He was also described as having a diamond tattoo on his right forearm and a cross & anchor tattoo on his left forearm.

Promotions were as follows:

Corporal – 15 May 1895

Lance Sergeant – 19 November 1895

Sergeant – 17 April 1897

When his term expired he re-enlisted to complete 12 years of service on 8 July 1902 while still in the Transvaal.

Colour-Sergeant – 1 February 1908

Retired – 29 January 1914

Sergeant Major Walter Anniss

Above: Then Colour Sergeant Walter Anniss of the 1st Battalion the Duke of Wellington’s West Riding Regiment photographed in India around 1904. Looking very regimental in his white summer service uniform, he wears the Queen’s and King’s South Africa medals for his service in South Africa during the Anglo-Boer War. Image source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

During his initial 21 years with the colours, Anniss saw active service with his battalion during the Anglo-Boer War. He was entitled to the Queen’s South Africa Medal with the clasps “Paardeberg“, “Driefontein”, “Relief of Kimberley” and “Transvaal” and the King’s South Africa Medal with the clasps “1901” and “1902”.

After South Africa Anniss deployed to India with his battalion and finished out his enlistment of 21 years, being discharged at the Lahore Cantonment on 29 January 1914. His discharge papers stated that he was entitled the Long Service & Good Conduct Medal as well as the 1911 Delhi Durbar Medal. He was also in possession of a 1st Class Education Certificate, a 1st Class Certificate of Gymnastics, a Certificate of Musketry and a Sobriety Certificate.

During his 21 years with the colours, Anniss had only one entry on the regimental defaulter’s book and that was for neglect of duty while on guard while stationed on Malta – 11 November 1896 for which he was “severely reprimanded”.

According to his service papers, Anniss married Emily Annie Bolton on 5 August 1911 with the ceremony taking -place in Isleworth, Middlesex. This was while Anniss was still stationed in India so he must have received approval for leave to return to England to get married. In any event his first child – a son named Robert – was born in Ambala, India on 23 May 1912. He would also have one daughter Annie Evelyn who was born in England on 7 May 1914.

Sergeant Major Walter Anniss Reverse

Above: The reverse of Walter Anniss’ photograph showing the inscription to his brother and sister. Various pencil notations made by others over the years can also be seen. Residue from a modern price tag/label can be seen in the upper right-hand corner. The remains of perforated paper tape on the right and left sides of the card were probably placed there to hold a protective paper cover over the face of the photograph prior to Anniss posting it home to his family from India in 1904. Image Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/

Less than a year would pass between Walter Anniss’ retirement and the outbreak of World War One. He volunteered and joined the 6th (service) Battalion of the Queen’s Royal West Surrey Regiment at his former rank with the regimental number G/1207. He deployed to France with the Expeditionary Force on 1 June 1915. His battalion took over a relatively quiet sector of the line beginning at Ploegsteert Wood and eventually extending some 7000 yards south to Armentieres. Even here the battalion was to suffer over 500 casualties in July. Walter Anniss was one of those being wounded on 25 July 1915. He died the following day.

At the time of his death, Anniss held the rank of Company Sergeant-Major. His medal index card states that he was entitled to the 1914-15 Star, the British War Medal, and the Victory Medal.

Anniss Medal Group

Above: A reconstruction of Walter Anniss’ medal group as it would have appeared had he survived to wear it. From left to right: the George V Army Long Service &Good Conduct Medal, the Queen’s South Africa Medal with the clasps “Paardeberg”, “Driefontein”, “Relief of Kimberley” and “Transvaal” and the King’s South Africa Medal with the  clasps “1901” and “1902”, the 1914-15 Star, The British War Medal, the British WWI Victory Medal and the 1911 Delhi Durbar Medal.

Company Sergeant-Major Walter Anniss was buried at the Bailleul Communal Cemetery and Extension in Bailleul, France.

This photograph was taken in 1904 and inscribed on the reverse by Walter Annis – “To Sister & Brother, Pat & Will. From Wal, Sitapur, 30. 12. 04.”

Walter Anniss Memorial Scroll

Above: A recreation of the Walter Anniss’ memorial scroll as it might have appeared after the war. Scrolls such as this were provided in the name of the King to the next of kin of each British and Empire service member who died or was killed in action while on active service in the field during the war. The scroll was always accompanied by a 12.1 cm circular bronze plaque bearing the deceased name. The current whereabouts of Anniss’ original scroll, plaque and medal group is unknown. As no record of their sale has been found, they may still reside with his family. Image Source: Edward T. Garcia/

Chief Operator Inez Ann Crittenden – Hello Girl

During World War One when American forces began to arrive in France in 1917 they found the French telephone service lacking in efficiency and the ability to effectively support the American Expeditionary Forces. To remedy the situation General John J. Pershing issued a call for experienced American telephone personnel to fill the void. While the actual construction of the new telephone system would be handled by U.S. Army engineering units. Pershing decided the vital switchboard operations would be handled by specially recruited female staff who would become known to posterity as the “Hello Girls”. They were also the first uniformed female members if the U.S. Army.

That women would be selected was not so much as the result of forward thinking, but simply out of one of expediency – the vast majority of experienced telephone operators in the U.S. were women. Besides technical proficiency, the women would also have to be able to speak French fluently. Ultimately some 7000 women would volunteer for service overseas and of those 450 were selected for training.

Crittenden Sunset 1918

Above: Chief Operator Inez Ann Murphy Crittenden as she appeared in the June 1917 issue of Sunset magazine. She wears the insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps on her uniform. Female members on the telephone units like Crittenden had to purchase their own uniforms. Source: Sunset Magazine/google books.

The selected volunteers received training in military protocol at Camp Franklin, Maryland and of these 223 would eventually deploy overseas to England and France two groups. Sworn into service with the U.S. Army Signal Corps they were to adhere to the same military regulations and protocols as their male counterparts. Organized into two units, the first fell under command of Chief Operator Grace Banker. Inez Ann Crittenden would be the Chief Operator of the second unit.

Inez was born in Oakland, California in September 1887 to T. P. Murphy and his wife Emily. At the very early age of 14, she had already found employment as a telephone operator. With her saved earnings she hired a private tutor to continue her education, learning French in the process. She married Nathaniel P. Crittenden in 1911 but the couple would divorce in 1917. By the time she entered service with the Signal Corps, she was the executive secretary to J. K. Armsby, the president of the California Packing Company. Already fluent in French, she passed the required Signal Corps exams and was appointed Chief Operator with the nominal rank of 1st lieutenant.

Sailing for France on board the RMS Carmania on March 29, 1918, Crittenden would soon impress her superiors overseas. She would be reassigned to the Committee for Public Information at the United States Embassy in Paris and later to a post in the Intelligence Department.


Above: A U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph showing “Hello Girls” performing their critical switchboard duties somewhere in France in 1917-1918. Source:  U.S. Army Signal Corps.

With the war rapidly drawing to its close, Inez Crittenden no doubt looked forward to returning home. This was no to be. In early November 1918, she contracted the Spanish Flu which was then spreading into a worldwide epidemic. On November 11, 1918 – the last day of the war – she died in Paris at the age of 31 and was laid to rest at the Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial.

Crittenden San Francisco Examiner

Above: A newspaper clipping from the November 29, 1918 edition of the San Francisco Examiner announcing the death in France of Chief Operator Inez Ann Crittenden. Source: San Francisco Examiner/

Other surviving “Hello Girls” returning stateside found their service now being considered in rather ambiguous terms. Although they served in uniform with the insignia of the U.S. Signal Corps, they were now considered to have been civilian employees of the army and therefore denied official veteran status and were refused honorable discharges and were never issued the World War One Victory Medal.

Grace Banker

Above: First Unit Chief Operator Grace D. Banker photographed after being awarded the Distinguished Service Medal at the end of the war. The much-deserved award of this medal Banker only added to the ambiguous nature of the female telephone operators status as soldiers. Banker wears the shoulder patch of the 3rd Army as well as three regulation gold U.S. Army overseas service chevrons on her lower sleeve denoting indicating between 18 and 23 months of foreign service. Given Inez Crittenden much lauded service as Second Unit Chief Operator as well as with the U.S. Embassy in Paris, one wonders if she might similarly have been presented with the Distinguished Service Medal had she not died on the last day of the war. Photo: National WWI Museum and Memorial.

Over the years a number of bills in Congress intended to rectify the disgrace died in committee. It was only through the tireless efforts of former Hello Girl Merle Egan Anderson that in 1979 the twenty surviving Signal Corps Operators were finally recognized with full veteran status and were presented with their much deserved honorable discharge certificates and World War One Victory Medals by President Jimmy Carter. Unjustly the recognition was not retroactive and those Hello Girls who had passed away prior to 1979, including Chief Operator Inez Ann Murphy Crittenden, are still not considered veterans by the nation they so willingly and actively served.


Above: Members of the Signal Corps telephone operators photographed soon after their arrival in Paris, France. The pictured male senior officers – all members of the Signal Corps – would never have their veteran status questioned after the war. Photo: U.S. Army Signal Corps.