From the Far East to the Wild West

There are those rare instances when research into the identities of soldiers in an old photograph turns up far more than one would have guessed possible. This carte de visite of Private Clyde G. Wilson and Corporal Elmer Brick of M Company, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry is an example of just such an occasion. As it turns out one of these men – Private Wilson to be specific – was a key protagonist in one of the Old West’s last “range wars”, the so-called Dewey-Berry Feud which was fought out in Wilson’s home state of Kansas in 1903.

Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick

Above: Private Clyde G. Wilson (standing, left) and Corporal Elmer Brick (seated, right) of M Company, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry in Manila during the so-called Philippine Insurrection. Carte de Visite, Centro Atrisico/Fotografia Espanola – Photographer
Manila, Philippine Islands. c. 1899

Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

Clyde G. Wilson was born on 5 December 1876 in Iowa the son of William Oliver Wilson and the former Clara Burk. The family had moved to Salina, Kansas sometime before Clyde Wilson, along with his younger brother Samuel enlisted in M Company of the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. At the time of his enlistment, Clyde Wilson stood 6 feet tall and weighed 178 pounds. He was said to have blue eyes.

The 20th Kansas deployed to the Philippines but arrived too late to see action against the Spanish but they did go into the field during the Philippine Insurrection. During his service in the Philippines, Wilson rose to the rank of sergeant but younger brother Samuel was not so fortunate, being killed in action on 29 March 1899 at Guiguinto River.

Clyde Wilson returned home with his regiment in October 1899 and in March 1900 stood for election as town marshal in his hometown of Salina, He ultimately lost his bid but was appointed to the town’s police force soon afterward. As will be seen Wilson like so many western personalities did not seem to see any undue conflict of interest in working both sides of the legal fence when the opportunity presented itself. By 1903 the afore mentioned Wild West was dying in fits at starts although a few of the old “habits” lingered – Butch Cassidy and his “Wild Bunch” had only recently still been active in Utah and Colorado – when Clyde Wilson was hired by the Chicago-born Kansas rancher Chauncey Dewey who owned a spread called Oak Ranch, which according to a June 9, 1903 article in the Chicago Tribune encompassed some 93,000 acres. The same article says that Dewey (who was often referred to in the press as a “millionaire”) obtained much of the property by taking over the defaulted mortgages of smaller farms and ranches, a practice which no doubt led to more ever growing animosities between the involved parties.

One such standing feud existed between Chauncey Dewey and Daniel Berry, a farmer and patriarch of a large family. The bad blood had arisen from the fact that members of the Berry family had refused to vacate property now owned the Dewey Cattle Company. As are many such cases it was a small spark that set off the final firestorm.

Daniel Berry had several bad debts against him and an auction of his property was held to help pay off his creditors. A five barrel stock tank was one of the items up for bid and it was purchased for five dollars by Sheriff Robert McCulloch of Cheyenne County on behalf of Chauncey Dewey. Two of Berry’s sons let it be known that if Dewey wanted to take possession of his purchase he needed“…to be damned sure to send the right kind of man after that tank…”

The following day Chauncey Dewey took the dare and headed over to the Berry spread with ten of his men to back up his claim. Amongst those ten was Clyde Wilson. Being an experienced former soldier had made Wilson one of Dewey’s right-hand men. Dewey also made sure that all of his men were well armed with Colt revolvers and Winchester rifles.

Arriving at the Berry farm Clyde Wilson and another Dewey cowboy began to load the tank in a wagon they had brought for the purpose and Daniel Berry decided to go tell Chauncy Dewey and “thing or two” his eldest son Alpheaus joining him. At the same time two more of Berry’s sons, Burchard, Beech and a cousin Roy rode up and dismounted. As is so many such cases no one really knows what really happened next or who fired the first shot. In moments Daniel, Alpheaus and Burchard Berry where all dead, Beech and Roy Berry wounded – the later having a portion of his jaw shot away.

Dewey and two of his men – Clyde Wilson and another former soldier by the name of William McBride – where charged with murder but only surrendered after a company of Kansas National Guard was called up to keep them from being lynched by members of the Berry faction, a group now swelled in numbers by outraged local ranchers and farmers. Dewey’s brother C. P. Dewey and two wealthy Topeka bankers posted the $100,000 bond for the three men. This was an immense sum by the day’s standards totaling over $3,000,000 in today’s dollars.

The March 1904 the trial must have been seen at the time as an event of the then new century with the defense and prosecution employing some fourteen lawyers between them. More sensationalism occurred when one of the prosecuting attorneys L. D. Hotchkiss met an untimely end in a “…sudden and shocking death by drowning…” as recounted in the Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Attorney General of Kansas.

During the trial Clyde Wilson testified on his own behalf as reported in the March 2, 1904 edition of the Kansas City Star:

“I came to Oak Ranch, October 7, 1902, and worked as a stenographer and bookkeeper. I went with Chauncey Dewey and his men June 3, 1903, to the Alpheus Berry place. I had a Winchester rifle and a six-shooter. When we arrived there I was standing close to Dewey when the Berry boys rode up. They dismounted and tied their horses to a wagon. They pulled their revolvers around in front of them and when they advanced three or four steps one of them said: ‘You will take nothing from here to-day.’ As he said this they all put their hands on their pistols. Dewey said to them: ‘Stop, stop where you are.’ They fired at us. Roy Berry fired directly at Dewey and Burch Berry fired at McBride. When they put their hands on their pistols, I put a cartridge into my Winchester. When the Berrys fired I saw a horse drop. Our men then fired. Two of the Berry boys fell. I saw Dewey shoot. I did not bring my gun to my shoulder until after the Berry boys fell.”

Clyde Wilson TrialAbove: Proceedings of Clyde Wilson’s, Chauncey Dewey’sand William McBride’s murder trial as it appeared in the February 20, 1904, edition of the Salina Sun. Source: Newspapers.com/Salina Sun.

The trail ended as many probably thought it would with the well connected and equally well moneyed Dewey faction being freed after a verdict of not guilty was returned. Chauncey Dewey, Clyde Wilson, McBride, and the entire jury were burned in effigy by an irate mob outside the courthouse. The surviving Berry’s filed a wrongful death suit against Chauncey Dewey, Clyde Wilson and William McBride –  the other ex-soldier in Dewey’s service. That case dragged on for years before finally being resolved for some $15,000 in the late 1920s in favor of the Berrys.

In 1910 Clyde Wilson was ranch manager for one Albert Bretschye in Ashland Kansas. Working with him was another of his younger brothers, Trace Wilson. Clyde Wilson must have retained some of his ill-gotten local notoriety because in April of the same year he was reported in the Salina Evening Journal as being near death as the result of an automobile accident that occurred in Topeka. As if to prove that old associations died hard the same newspaper reported later in May that Wilson had recovered enough to finish his convalescence in Chicago but that he first planned to stop at the Dewey ranch and meet up with his former employer Chauncey Dewey, who was also planning to visit Chicago.

Wilson married sometime before 1915. He and his wife Hattie had one daughter named Ida Helen born in Colorado on 10 May 1915. A few years later with the U.S. entry into World War One, he re-enlisted in the army on 2 April 1918 joining the 9th Recruit Company at his old rank of Sergeant and seemingly spent the rest of that year training recruits at Fort Logan, Colorado. He received an honorable discharge on 27 December 1918. After the war, Wilson was in the oil and gas production business and by 1940 we were City Clerk in Fredonia, Kansas. He must have found that both professions were much better suited to a family man than his old gunslinging cowboy days were.

Clyde Wilson Medal Group

Above: A reconstruction of Clyde G. Wilson’s medal group as it would have appeared at the end of World War One.

The first medal from left is the Philippine Campaign Medal which Wilson was entitled to for service with the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry from 1898 to 1899.

Second (center) is the U.S. version of the World War One Victory Medal which Wilson earned while serving with the 9th Recruit Company, General Service Infantry at Fort Logan, Colorado in 1918. His medal was issued without clasps since the duration of his service during the war took place within the borders of the United States.

Third (far left) is the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Spanish-American War service Badge issued to members of the 20th upon their return to Kansas in 1899. Originally intended to be a State of Kansas honor to her veterans, the Legislature failed to pass the required bill whereupon the Kansas Department of the Grand Army of the Republic stepped up and
produced the badge themselves for presentation to this younger generation of veterans. Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

In December 1927 Wilson applied for military pension benefits based upon his service with the 20th Kansas Volunteers. Wilson was still active in August 1945 when he served as a pallbearer for William Dillener one of his old comrades in arms in the 20th Kansas
Volunteers. Clyde G. Wilson died on 3 August 1958, probably with his boots off at the ripe old age of 80 and was buried with military honors at Gypsum Hill Cemetery in Salina, Kansas.

Clyde Wilson Obituary

Above: Clyde Wilson’s obituary which appeared in the August 4 1958 edition of the Salina Journal. No mention of his part in the Dewey-Berry Feud is mentioned. Even as late as 1958 old animosities may very well have still lingered. Source: Newspapers.com/Salina Journal.

Samuel Elmer Brick was born on 8 January 1878 at Browns Creek, Kansas the son of George W. Brick, a painter by trade and Mary Ann Clanin.

Brick enlisted in the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry at the same time as Clyde Wilson in Saline, Kansas. Based upon the photograph it seems that Brick was the first of the two to receive a promotion – in this case to corporal. Brick was slightly wounded at Caloocan on 10 February. This wounding is mentioned in the regimental history but apparently never officially recorded.

After returning home his life took quite a different turn than that of his gunslinging friend Clyde Wilson. He returned to the family home and like so many young men in those days took up his father’s trade as a painter.  Brick married his wife Lillian BellePadgett sometime around 1906 and by 1910 had three children and now owned his own paint store – the Salina Paint & Paper Company. In 1920 his business is listed simply as a paint and paper store.

He seems to have had a certain business acumen since in 1919 he registered a trademark with the U.S. Patent Office for Nurex Adhesive Paste which based upon the nature of his business must have been a type of wallpaper paste. He held a patent (1920) for a type of bookbinding gum to be used for the making of pads of paper. Reading through his patent (No. 1,341,782) it is obvious that Brick had more than a casual grasp of chemistry. Two additional patents were also held for waterproof and bookbinding gums. (Nos. 1,389,574 and 1,384,575).

Elmer Brick Patent Drawing

Above: Elmer Brick’s drawing for his 1920 patent for improved book/pad binding gum (No. 1341782A). Brick would be granted at least three such patents. Source: Google Patents.

Brick also stayed active with his old military associates. While attending the 10th Annual Encampment of the United Spanish War Veterans in 1913 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief.

During World War One Brick registered for the draft on 12 September 1918. I have found no record of him serving during the war but with the war coming to an end in November this is not all that surprising.

Samuel Elmer Brick died on 8 December 1920 at the age of 42 due to complications arising from Lymphatic Leukemia in Dallas, Texas. He was buried in his home town of Salina, Kansas. One wonders if his death had resulted from exposure to the numerous chemicals related to his chosen profession.

Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick Reverse

Above: The reverse side of the above carte de visite showing the period inscription identifying the subjects of the photograph Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick. Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

The Gunhand – or Who Was George Frensley?

This carte de visite formatted tintype is the latest addition to my collection of Old West photographs. The six-shooter armed subject is identified on the mount’s reverse side as George Frensley. The style of the mount places the creation of the image most likely sometime in the late 1870s.

george frensley matted

Above: Carte de Visite format tintype depicting a revolver armed George Frensley. If properly identified the photograph was probably taken in north Texas sometime in the 1870s. Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com collection.

Frensley’s clothing also fits into that same time period. He wears his revolver on his left hip is cross draw fashion – a style affected by many gunfighters during the period. Although little of his sidearm is visible, the grips of the pistol seem to be those of a Colt. The fact that the revolver’s ejector rod housing has left its impression on the holster seems to confirm the revolver being of Colt manufacture. It could be a Colt Single Action Army which would date the image no earlier than 1873. His sidearm could also be a Colt cartridge conversion which also dated from the early 1870s.

Colts

Above: Frontier era Colt revolvers of the type George Frensley appears to be armed with. At the top is a nickel-plated Colt Richards-Mason type cartridge conversion revolver circa the early 1870s. At bottom is a Colt 1873 Single Action Army revolver. Photos – Rock Island Auctions.

After an exhaustive search of historical records, the evidence seems to indicate that George Frensley may, in fact, be George Washington Frensley who was born on April 3, 1855, at Water Valley, Kentucky to Charles Alfred Frensley and Letitia Susan Draper. The family relocated to Texas sometime after 1860 and by 1870 Charles Frensley had died. The family was living on a farm in Cooke County, Texas along the border of Indian Territory (today’s Oklahoma).

george frensley unmatted

Above: George Frensley’s tintype removed from its paper frame allowing the image to be viewed in its entirety. Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com collection.

Frensley does not show up in the 1880 census and it is possible that he was employed as a roving cowhand. This photo seems indicative of that possibility. Little else regarding Frensley has come to light other than the fact that he died at Whitesborough (today’s Whitesboro) Texas on January 15, 1883. The town – also close by the border of Indian Territory – was so unruly in the 1870s that female residents were forbidden on the streets on weekend evenings due to the rampant random gunfire that plagued the frontier town.

Naturally, the question at hand is whether or not the George Frensley in the tintype is one and the same with George Washington Frensley. No definitive proof has been found indicating that they are the same man but at the same time no other suitable person by the same name has turned up in my repeated searches although the possibility of other likely candidates turning up cannot be discounted.

A Window Into the Past

This well-worn three-page letter is not perhaps that remarkable as far as such things go. It is not in the hand of the great or famous, nor does it recount some historic deed or event. The contents are in fact rather mundane in nature, consisting of the thoughts of an otherwise forgotten soldier of the queen put to paper for the benefit of his brother and sister. One might consider the most remarkable thing is that these three small, yellowed and tattered pages survived at all after almost 150 years, but perhaps, more importantly, the letter opened a larger window onto the life of its sender.

shaw letter 1 copy

Above: The first page of then Corporal Thomas Shaw of the 6th Regiment of Foot to his brother and sister, probably while still posted to Ireland with the regiment’s 2nd Battalion. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

Dated February 9, 1874, the letter was written by the newly promoted No. 205 Corporal William Shaw of “A” Company, 2nd Battalion, the 6th Regiment of Foot to his Brother and sister from Belfast, Ireland. Shaw begins his letter in the most of traditional of manners:

“Dear Brother & Sister, It is with pleasure I’ve now sit down to write to you hoping these will find you all at home enjoying good & perfect health…”

I will not offer a complete or verbatim transcription of Shaw’s letter but he writes about events that today would be related via a phone call or even text messages. He mentions his recent promotion to corporal, inquires after other family members including his father, uncles, aunts and various children.

“I am promoted corporal & left the drummers & gone to my duty and that we are now getting on very nicely…”

shaw letter 2 copy

Above: The second page of Shaw’s February 1874 letter home. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

While Shaw’s letter consists primarily of familiar small talk, the mention of his regiment, and service number led to the discovery of his January 1878 discharge papers. These offer us a view of his life with the “colours” as well as a rather sad end to his military service.

Born about 1838 at St. Mark’s, Lincolnshire, Shaw attested with the 2/6th on 4 November 1857. He was appointed drummer on 1 October 1865 and then corporal (for the first time) on17 May 1868. On 11 July 1868 Shaw was reduced to private after being convicted by courts-martial for being drunk on duty. He was reappointed drummer on 1 September 1868 and promoted corporal for the second time (his promotion mentioned in his letter) on 3 February 1874. Promoted sergeant on 1 March 1876, Shaw was detached from duty with his regiment for service with the 3rd Warwick Militia on 25 May 1876. He would be discharged from service due to “Being found unfit for further military service” on 17 February 1878.

Although Shaw did not serve actively in any campaigns, he did see a bit of the empire, being stationed overseas: at Gibraltar for a bit more than four years, the Ionian Islands for just under two and the West Indies for almost four. In spite of his 1868 court-martial and resulting demotion, towards the end of his career, he was awarded the Long Service & Good Conduct Medal.

Being found unfit for further military service was not an uncommon happenstance in Victoria’s army. A long-serving soldier could be rendered thus as the result of wounds received in battle, from injuries acquired performing garrison duty or any of the sicknesses or diseases found both at home and the far-flung corners of the empire. For Shaw, it was something more ominous. One the second page of his discharge papers giving the reason for his leaving the army, boldly in red ink is the word “Insane”.

On his medical report sheet, a more specific diagnosis is given as “Paralysis of the Insane”. This is an archaic medical term that apparently most often referred to serious mental decline brought on by previous syphilitic infections. The condition almost always resulted in death of the patient, often quite soon after diagnosis. Interestingly Shaw’s medical history sheet lists the cause of his condition as “climatic conditions” and as the result of “Long service in the Mediterranean and W. Indies where he was much affected by the sun.” Shaw’s cause of Shaw’s diagnosis was not the usual one and this is further reflected on his medical sheet by his regimental surgeon who wrote: “A hopeful case. Is partially able to his own support.

In any event, upon discharge Shaw was committed to the hospital at Bow (probably St. Clements) for a period of 12 months. Former Sergeant Thomas Shaw disappears from the records after this. His fate remains unknown as does his family origins.

shaw letter 3 copy

Above: The third page of Corporal Shaw’s to his brother and sister. Throughout the letter, Shaw seems to address himself in the plural “we” form, but in fact, it appears that his sister Elizabeth was living with him while posted to Ireland. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

Postmark USS Arizona Part II

Not long ago while perusing a well-known online auction website, I came across this used postal cover from 1935. It was originally mailed to Miss Marjorie Ogle of Glendora, California and was postmarked onboard the tragically fated battleship USS Arizona. Postal covers postmarked on the Arizona (as well as other US warships of the time) are not uncommon since commemorative covers were available by subscription service to collectors. I posted an article regarding on one of these commemorative Arizona covers here.

Schuman Arizona Cover Front

Above: Addressed to his future bride to be Marjorie Ogle, the envelope to Storekeeper 1st Class Herman Lincoln Schuman’s letter is postmarked March 7, 1935, on board the USS. Arizona. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Two things caught my eye with this cover. One was the hometown of the addressee Marjorie Lois Ogle which also happens to be where I live – Glendora, California. The second was the fact that it was not a commemorative/souvenir issue but a cover from a personal letter sent by a member of the crew of the Arizona apparently to his girlfriend or fiancé on March 7, 1935. At the time the Arizona was moored at San Pedro, California with the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Battle Fleet.

The cover (and sadly now missing letter) was mailed by Storekeeper First Class (SK1/c) Herman Lincoln Schuman and needless to say I began investigating his story even before purchasing the cover. The uneasy question in the back of my mind was as to whether Schuman was still aboard the Arizona six years later at Pearl Harbor on the Day of Infamy.

Schuman Arizona Cover Back

Above: The reverse side of the envelope which one held Schuman’s letter to his future wife identifying the sender as a member of the ill-fated battleship’s crew. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Herman Lincoln Schuman was born in Connecticut on February 12, 1912, to Otto and Elizabeth Schuman. Herman had two younger sisters, Grace (born about 1916) and May (born about 1919). Little can be known about Schuman’s early life and schooling. Scant records indicate that Schuman enlisted in the navy on March 9, 1935, and reported aboard the Arizona on the 23rd of that month – not long after James Cagney and company took over the ship during the filming of Here Comes the Navy. The very short time between enlistment and assignment implied that most of Schuman’s training took place actively onboard ship.

In the later part of 1935 Schuman would have taken part in fleet exercises and made port at Balboa, Panama. Budget cuts led to the ship being held in port for good portions of 1936 -1938 and in 1937 Schuman would marry Marjorie Ogle. The new couple took an apartment in Long Beach, California.

Schuman’s new bride was born at Enders, Nebraska on July 24, 1917, to George Washington Ogle and Orrilla Vennie Cooney. The Ogle family headed west in the early 1920s, settling in Glendora.  Marjorie’s mother died on May 5, 1923. Exactly how a blue water sailor like Herman Schuman and Marjorie, a girl from the orange growing inland town of Glendora came to meet is for now part of the story lost to history.

Schuman Arizona Report of Changes

Above: A section of the USS Arizona’s Report of Changes (ship’s muster book) for March 31, 1939. Herman L. Schuman is listed along with his service number – 375 50 95 – as well as his date, and place of enlistment – March 9, 1936, at San Pedro, California. His then rating is also given – Storekeeper 2nd Class (SK2c). Source: National Archives.

Fleet exercises took Schuman and the Arizona to Hawaiian waters in 1938 and again in 1940. It was then on to Bremerton, Washington for a long-needed overhaul which was completed in January 1941. The Arizona would make one final visit to Long Beach, California in June – July 1941. While Herman and Marjorie would have had a long overdue reunion, little did the couple know it would be the last time they would ever see one another.

The Arizona returned to Pearl Harbor and took part in additional training exercises in prelude to a war most knew was inevitable. Inevitable as the coming was seemed to be, the Japanese attack in the early morning hours of December 7, 1941, took a sleeping Pearl Harbor by total surprise. Soon after the beginning of the attack, the Arizona beat to quarters and battle stations were quickly manned. The crew’s gallant efforts came to naught. I rapid succession the Arizona was hit by eight bombs from Japanese warplanes. One bomb glanced off turret no. 2, pierced the deck and detonated in the forward magazine. The resulting explosion and fire instantaneously destroyed the forward half of the ship and the lives of 1,177 of the crewmen on board her snuffed out. In the immediate aftermath of the attack and during later salvage operations on the wreck many bodies were recovered but some 900 were declared unrecoverable. The ship would become their tomb. SK1/c Herman Lincoln Schuman is among those 900 whose still rest beneath the waters of Pearl Harbor.

Schuman’s widow Marjorie would remarry during the war to another navy man. She passed away at Benson, Arizona in 1998.

Above: A wartime film that combined a recreation of the attack on Pearl Harbor with actual newsreel film of the event including the massive explosion which destroyed the USS Arizona. Source: The National Archives/YouTube.

Researching Herman Lincoln Schuman has been problematic due to the paucity of military records. Only a few pages of ship’s musters have been found for the Arizona that mentions him with these being for between 1939 and December 31, 1941.  Not much can be gleaned from these other than him being on the ship on a given date and his then given rating and his service number – 357 50 94. An inquiry made to the National Archives several months ago regarding acquiring copies of his service records has so far gone unanswered. Service records would provide much in-depth information relating to Schuman’s naval career. Additionally, after exhaustive searches, no photograph of Herman Lincoln Schuman has been found. Again, Schuman’s service records probably contain a photograph of him.

Note: In 2015 an extensive research project was initiated at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri into the service jackets (service records) of the officers and crewmen who died on the Arizona on December 7th. The project included digitally scanning the contents of all 1177 service jackets of those that died on the Arizona.  As of May 2016, the USS Arizona Casualty Project was supposed to be completed in one and a half years and the results made public. As of this posting I have not been able to find any information online as to the current status of the project. A message to the Pacific Historic Parks – USS Arizona Memorial Facebook page as to the status of the project may answer the question as to the availability of Herman Schuman’s naval records.

 

Serving His Adopted Homeland

This photographic study of a member of “B” Troop, 7th United States Cavalry would have remained unidentified had it not been for the lucky inclusion of this soldier’s calling card with the lot when purchased.

Emil_ViewegAbove: Private Emil Paul Vieweg of the 7th U.S. Cavalry poses in his M1911 winter service tunic ans M1905 service cap at Fort Riley, Kansas c. 1908. Mounted Photograph (trimmed) 6 3/4 Inches by 4 7/8 Inches (17.5 cm x 12.5 cm), Unknown Photographer
Fort Riley, Kansas, United States. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com

Born at Greiz in eastern Thuringia, Germany, on September 16, 1885, Emil Paul Vieweg arrived in the United States in 1906 and like so many other recent immigrants enlisted in the army soon thereafter on 14 December 1907. Attached as a private to “B” Troop of the famed 7th U.S. Cavalry, Vieweg served out his term of enlistment at Fort Riley, Kansas. He took his discharge on 13 December 1910. At that time his character was listed as “Excellent”. By 1910 he had already declared his intent to become a U.S. citizen and by 1920 his application had been granted.

Emil_Vieweg_Calling_Card-600x336

Above: Private Emil Vieweg’s calling card used while he was a member of “B” Troop, 7th Regiment, United States Cavalry. His photographic portrait is attached to the card in the manner and size of a postage stamp. The photograph is exactly the same image seen in the
larger photo shown above. The card and larger portrait were in all likelihood produced as a package. Such packages were probably offered at a discount and sold in various combinations to the soldiers
stationed at Fort Riley. 2 Inches by 3 1/2 Inches
(5.2 cm x 9.1 cm) c. 1908. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com

Army life must have agreed with him but perhaps having grown tired of the rather flat and boring landscape of Kansas, Vieweg re-enlisted as a private on 23 May 1911 at Fort Wadsworth, New York this time with 53 Company, United States Coast Artillery Corps. If Vieweg had intended to make a career in the army it was a short-lived hope since he was admitted to Walter Reed Army Hospital for an unknown reason on 11 November 1912. He returned to duty at Fort Wadsworth, New York on 23 December 1912 after more than a year in the hospital. Vieweg was discharged for disability on 16 May 1913. At this time his character was stated as being “good”. He applied for an army disability pension on 5 June 1918. Interestingly this application did not prevent his registering for the draft on 12 September 1918. I have found no evidence of Vieweg serving another hitch during World War One.

According to the above-mentioned draft registration, Vieweg was married with his wife’s name being Theresa. He was employed as a timekeeper with the J. L. Sommers Manufacturing Company, a firm that produced “wire novelties”. The couple made their home in Newark, New Jersey. The couple was still residing in Newark in 1930 during which time Vieweg was now employed as a department store manager.

Emil_Vieweg_B_Troop_Postcard

Above: A Real Photo Postcard titled “B Troop Sports Taking Life Easy”. The photograph was taken somewhere in the vicinity of Fort Riley, Kansas c 1908 shows nine members of B Troop, 7th United States Cavalry as well as three young men who may have been the sons of some of these soldiers. Private Emil Vieweg stands at far right leaning against the tree. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com

In the 1930 United States Census, all adult males had their status as veterans listed. Even though Vieweg clearly served in the U.S. Army he was listed as a non-veteran. I have seen several other similar cases and apparently the enumerators for the 1930 census only listed those former soldiers who had served in a war as veterans. For those men who the “veteran” box was marked “yes” it was always followed by a notation of “WW” for World War One, “SP” for the Spanish-American War and in a few cases by this late date “CW” for Civil War. It should also be noted that there was no veteran credit given to those soldiers who had taken part in the many Indian Wars – at least I have never seen one listed as such.

Vieweg and his wife who was 17 years his senior seem to have remained childless. By 1940 he was widowed and living at he Soldier’s Home Hospital in Washington DC. He passed away on 4 December 1947 and was buried at the Soldier’s Home National Cemetery, Washington DC.

Fragments of the Old West – or Checking in at Tombstone

Another fragment of the Old West – a Pima County Bank Check/Draft from Tombstone, Arizona dated September 6, 1881, payable to a member of the Fesenfeld family of Anaheim Township which was then part of Los Angeles County. It is endorsed on the reverse by S. J. Fesenfeld and countersigned by banker B. F. Seibert (Benjamin F. Seibert) also of Anaheim.  The check was drawn at Tombstone a little less two months before what would become the most infamous gunfight in the Old West – the Gunfight at the OK Corral. It is signed by P.W. Smith, Manager.

Tombstone Check 2

Above: A $50.00 Bank Check Pima County Bank Tombstone, Arizona Territory, United States. September 6, 1881. 8 inches by 3 3/8 inches (20.3cm x 8.7cm). Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.soldiersofthequeen.com.

Tombstone Check Reverse 2

Above: The reverse side of the check endorsed by S. J. Fesenfeld to “Yourselves” and countersigned by banker Benjamin F. Seibert of the Farmers & Merchants Bank of Los Angeles.

P. W. Smith (Phillip William Smith, 1828-1901) was a key and colorful figure in early Tombstone history. He was a Republican, and considered a member of Wyatt Earp’s political “faction.” It is a little-known fact that the friction between Wyatt Earp and his brothers Virgil and Morgan along with John “Doc” Holliday and the Clantons was as much political as it was legal. The Earps and many of their adherents were members of the Republican Party while Clanton’s and their allies such as Cochise County Sheriff John Behan were all Democrats. Wyatt Earp would run against – and lose to – John Behan for the office of Cochise County Sheriff.

Smith owned and operated “P. W. Smith’s,” a popular general merchandise store in Tombstone. He also owned “P. W. Smith’s Corral,” on the corner of Third Street where Wyatt and Doc Holliday sometimes stabled their horses. Smith and partners B. Solomon and J. B. Fried supplied Tombstone with gas for street lights and homes. Smith was also one of the partners in the newspaper Tombstone Epitaph along with mayor John Clum, Charles Reppy, E. B. Gage (also members or sympathizers of the Earp Faction), and several others. He sold his interest in the paper when Milt Joyce and other Democratic investors took control and brought in Sam Purdy as the new editor.

Earps

Above: Wyatt Earp, Virgil Earp, Morgan Earp and John “Doc’ Holliday. All four men would shoot their way into Western legend during the so-called Gunfight at the O.K. Corral at Tombstone, Arizona on October 24, 1881. Virgil Earp served as Tombstone City Marshal and Wyatt and Vigil his deputies. Wyatt and Doc would be appointed Deputy U.S. Marshals in the bloody aftermath of the notorious gunfight.

In 1879, brothers Barron and Lionel Jacobs partnered with Smith to open the Pima County Bank, the first formal financial institution in Tucson. The two brothers were established merchants and suppliers in the Tucson and Tombstone areas, having expanded the family’s business from San Bernardino, California eastward into southeastern Arizona.

The following year, in 1880, the trio opened the “Agency Pima County Bank” in Tombstone, where it operated out of Smith’s mercantile building. In 1882 it became the Cochise County Bank, with Smith as President, but it would shut down in 1890 because of Tombstone’s depressed economy following the closure of many of the silver mines in the area.

Tombstone_(probably_in_1881)

Above: A view of Tombstone, Arizona c.1881 by noted local photographer C. S. Fly.

Many of Tombstone’s legendary lawmen and outlaws regularly did business with Smith; the day before the shootout at the OK Corral on Oct. 26, 1881, “Cow-Boys” Ike Clanton and Tom McLaury made deposits with Smith at the Pima County Bank, located in Smith’s mercantile building.

Cowboys

Above: Members of the “Cow-Boy” faction who were at odds with the Earps. Ike Clanton, Johnny Ringo, Cochise County Sheriff John Behan and a purported photo of William “Curley Bill” Brocius.

Allegedly, a day or so before the gunfight occurred, Wyatt Earp took delivery of a special frock coat from P. W. Smith’s mercantile store: supposedly a mackinaw with lined pockets and made in dark blue heavy jean or canvas. The pockets were supposed to be lined with stiff leather, doubling as holsters to hide Earp’s pistols. It was reported that Earp was wearing this coat during the famous gunfight.

Above: One of the seemingly endless number of classic scenes from the 1993 production of Tombstone. Source: Youtube/Hollywood Pictures.

On the day of the shooting, one of Smith’s employees, J. H. Batcher, was coming back to the mercantile store, following a few feet behind Wyatt Earp, who was walking in the same direction. He witnessed the famous confrontation between Tom McLaury and Wyatt, which ended when Earp slapped McLaury and then smacked him on the head with the butt of his pistol. This incident, along with Doc Holliday’s earlier confrontation with Ike Clanton, would touch off the gunfight a few hours later. Batcher would later be called to testify in court as to what he had seen that day.

Philip William Smith, merchant, banker, publisher and entrepreneur knew and associated with pretty much every major figure involved in Tombstone’s early days, and the gunfight at the OK Corral.

 

The Case of the Red Planet

Ok, so I have a slight obsession with the planet Mars of yesteryear. The Mars of today while still red, bears little if any resemblance to the celestial body that held the hopes of some great adventure like that which awaited Civil War veteran John Carter in Edgar Rice Burroughs’ A Princess of Mars. Nor does it still possess the sense of impending doom as foreseen by H. G. Wells in War of the Worlds. It should, but modern science – that killer of dreams – put an untimely end to that which we all knew, or at least hoped to be true. This tiny 1/16th glass plate image of Mars harks back to those halcyon but now long lost days.

Cased Mars Front

Above: Resplendent with its padded purple velvet liner, this tiny cased image pose several questions. The thermoplastic case is of the type commonly used just prior to and during the American Civil War. The glass image itself does not appear to be an ambrotype plate one would normally see in such case but may actually be a period magic lantern slide which was cut down to fit the case. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

When closed this c. 1860 thermoplastic cased image measures a gem-like 1 7/8 inches by 2 inches (4.8cm x 5cm). The image itself is not a true photograph of Mars since at the time there was no way of tracking a planet with a telescope over the very long exposure times required to produce an image. The common practice at the time consisted of an artist or astronomer observing the planet over a given length of time and creating a drawing or painting of what he saw. Then the finished artwork was photographed in a studio setting to produce the final glass plate image. Under very close examination this image appears to have been photographed from a watercolor painting.

Cased Mars Back

Above: The detailed outside of the thermoplastic case with a fruiting plant design. The tiny rose-headed pins which retain the cases brass hinges and clasp can be clearly seen. Often mistakenly referred to as gutta percha, photographic cases such as this example was made from thermoplastic, a putty made up of coal or sawdust mixed with shelac. The plastic material was then pressed into carved steel molds and baked. The resulting hardened material took on this dark brown or sometimes black coloration and could hold extremely fine detail. Thermoplastic could be somewhat brittle and subject to chipping and cracking. This example is almost unblemished. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

Unfortunately, there is nothing to indicate who may have produced or owned this little image but it must have been a prized and very unique possession then just as it is now.