Chief Operator Inez Ann Crittenden – Hello Girl

During World War One when American forces began to arrive in France in 1917 they found the French telephone service lacking in efficiency and the ability to effectively support the American Expeditionary Forces. To remedy the situation General John J. Pershing issued a call for experienced American telephone personnel to fill the void. While the actual construction of the new telephone system would be handled by U.S. Army engineering units. Pershing decided the vital switchboard operations would be handled by specially recruited female staff who would become known to posterity as the “Hello Girls”. They were also the first uniformed female members if the U.S. Army.

That women would be selected was not so much as the result of forward thinking, but simply out of one of expediency – the vast majority of experienced telephone operators in the U.S. were women. Besides technical proficiency, the women would also have to be able to speak French fluently. Ultimately some 7000 women would volunteer for service overseas and of those 450 were selected for training.

Crittenden Sunset 1918

Above: Chief Operator Inez Ann Murphy Crittenden as she appeared in the June 1917 issue of Sunset magazine. She wears the insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps on her uniform. Female members on the telephone units like Crittenden had to purchase their own uniforms. Source: Sunset Magazine/google books.

The selected volunteers received training in military protocol at Camp Franklin, Maryland and of these 223 would eventually deploy overseas to England and France two groups. Sworn into service with the U.S. Army Signal Corps they were to adhere to the same military regulations and protocols as their male counterparts. Organized into two units, the first fell under command of Chief Operator Grace Banker. Inez Ann Crittenden would be the Chief Operator of the second unit.

Inez was born in Oakland, California in September 1887 to T. P. Murphy and his wife Emily. At the very early age of 14, she had already found employment as a telephone operator. With her saved earnings she hired a private tutor to continue her education, learning French in the process. She married Nathaniel P. Crittenden in 1911 but the couple would divorce in 1917. By the time she entered service with the Signal Corps, she was the executive secretary to J. K. Armsby, the president of the California Packing Company. Already fluent in French, she passed the required Signal Corps exams and was appointed Chief Operator with the nominal rank of 1st lieutenant.

Sailing for France on board the RMS Carmania on March 29, 1918, Crittenden would soon impress her superiors overseas. She would be reassigned to the Committee for Public Information at the United States Embassy in Paris and later to a post in the Intelligence Department.

b4

Above: A U.S. Army Signal Corps photograph showing “Hello Girls” performing their critical switchboard duties somewhere in France in 1917-1918. Source:  U.S. Army Signal Corps.

With the war rapidly drawing to its close, Inez Crittenden no doubt looked forward to returning home. This was no to be. In early November 1918, she contracted the Spanish Flu which was then spreading into a worldwide epidemic. On November 11, 1918 – the last day of the war – she died in Paris at the age of 31 and was laid to rest at the Suresnes American Cemetery and Memorial.

Crittenden San Francisco Examiner

Above: A newspaper clipping from the November 29, 1918 edition of the San Francisco Examiner announcing the death in France of Chief Operator Inez Ann Crittenden. Source: San Francisco Examiner/ancesrty.com.

Other surviving “Hello Girls” returning stateside found their service now being considered in rather ambiguous terms. Although they served in uniform with the insignia of the U.S. Signal Corps, they were now considered to have been civilian employees of the army and therefore denied official veteran status and were refused honorable discharges and were never issued the World War One Victory Medal.

Grace Banker

Above: First Unit Chief Operator Grace D. Banker photographed after being awarded the Distinguished Service Medal at the end of the war. The much-deserved award of this medal Banker only added to the ambiguous nature of the female telephone operators status as soldiers. Banker wears the shoulder patch of the 3rd Army as well as three regulation gold U.S. Army overseas service chevrons on her lower sleeve denoting indicating between 18 and 23 months of foreign service. Given Inez Crittenden much lauded service as Second Unit Chief Operator as well as with the U.S. Embassy in Paris, one wonders if she might similarly have been presented with the Distinguished Service Medal had she not died on the last day of the war. Photo: National WWI Museum and Memorial.

Over the years a number of bills in Congress intended to rectify the disgrace died in committee. It was only through the tireless efforts of former Hello Girl Merle Egan Anderson that in 1979 the twenty surviving Signal Corps Operators were finally recognized with full veteran status and were presented with their much deserved honorable discharge certificates and World War One Victory Medals by President Jimmy Carter. Unjustly the recognition was not retroactive and those Hello Girls who had passed away prior to 1979, including Chief Operator Inez Ann Murphy Crittenden, are still not considered veterans by the nation they so willingly and actively served.

hello_girls

Above: Members of the Signal Corps telephone operators photographed soon after their arrival in Paris, France. The pictured male senior officers – all members of the Signal Corps – would never have their veteran status questioned after the war. Photo: U.S. Army Signal Corps. 

From the Far East to the Wild West

There are those rare instances when research into the identities of soldiers in an old photograph turns up far more than one would have guessed possible. This carte de visite of Private Clyde G. Wilson and Corporal Elmer Brick of M Company, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry is an example of just such an occasion. As it turns out one of these men – Private Wilson to be specific – was a key protagonist in one of the Old West’s last “range wars”, the so-called Dewey-Berry Feud which was fought out in Wilson’s home state of Kansas in 1903.

Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick

Above: Private Clyde G. Wilson (standing, left) and Corporal Elmer Brick (seated, right) of M Company, 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry in Manila during the so-called Philippine Insurrection. Carte de Visite, Centro Atrisico/Fotografia Espanola – Photographer
Manila, Philippine Islands. c. 1899

Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

Clyde G. Wilson was born on 5 December 1876 in Iowa the son of William Oliver Wilson and the former Clara Burk. The family had moved to Salina, Kansas sometime before Clyde Wilson, along with his younger brother Samuel enlisted in M Company of the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry. At the time of his enlistment, Clyde Wilson stood 6 feet tall and weighed 178 pounds. He was said to have blue eyes.

The 20th Kansas deployed to the Philippines but arrived too late to see action against the Spanish but they did go into the field during the Philippine Insurrection. During his service in the Philippines, Wilson rose to the rank of sergeant but younger brother Samuel was not so fortunate, being killed in action on 29 March 1899 at Guiguinto River.

Clyde Wilson returned home with his regiment in October 1899 and in March 1900 stood for election as town marshal in his hometown of Salina, He ultimately lost his bid but was appointed to the town’s police force soon afterward. As will be seen Wilson like so many western personalities did not seem to see any undue conflict of interest in working both sides of the legal fence when the opportunity presented itself. By 1903 the afore mentioned Wild West was dying in fits at starts although a few of the old “habits” lingered – Butch Cassidy and his “Wild Bunch” had only recently still been active in Utah and Colorado – when Clyde Wilson was hired by the Chicago-born Kansas rancher Chauncey Dewey who owned a spread called Oak Ranch, which according to a June 9, 1903 article in the Chicago Tribune encompassed some 93,000 acres. The same article says that Dewey (who was often referred to in the press as a “millionaire”) obtained much of the property by taking over the defaulted mortgages of smaller farms and ranches, a practice which no doubt led to more ever growing animosities between the involved parties.

One such standing feud existed between Chauncey Dewey and Daniel Berry, a farmer and patriarch of a large family. The bad blood had arisen from the fact that members of the Berry family had refused to vacate property now owned the Dewey Cattle Company. As are many such cases it was a small spark that set off the final firestorm.

Daniel Berry had several bad debts against him and an auction of his property was held to help pay off his creditors. A five barrel stock tank was one of the items up for bid and it was purchased for five dollars by Sheriff Robert McCulloch of Cheyenne County on behalf of Chauncey Dewey. Two of Berry’s sons let it be known that if Dewey wanted to take possession of his purchase he needed“…to be damned sure to send the right kind of man after that tank…”

The following day Chauncey Dewey took the dare and headed over to the Berry spread with ten of his men to back up his claim. Amongst those ten was Clyde Wilson. Being an experienced former soldier had made Wilson one of Dewey’s right-hand men. Dewey also made sure that all of his men were well armed with Colt revolvers and Winchester rifles.

Arriving at the Berry farm Clyde Wilson and another Dewey cowboy began to load the tank in a wagon they had brought for the purpose and Daniel Berry decided to go tell Chauncy Dewey and “thing or two” his eldest son Alpheaus joining him. At the same time two more of Berry’s sons, Burchard, Beech and a cousin Roy rode up and dismounted. As is so many such cases no one really knows what really happened next or who fired the first shot. In moments Daniel, Alpheaus and Burchard Berry where all dead, Beech and Roy Berry wounded – the later having a portion of his jaw shot away.

Dewey and two of his men – Clyde Wilson and another former soldier by the name of William McBride – where charged with murder but only surrendered after a company of Kansas National Guard was called up to keep them from being lynched by members of the Berry faction, a group now swelled in numbers by outraged local ranchers and farmers. Dewey’s brother C. P. Dewey and two wealthy Topeka bankers posted the $100,000 bond for the three men. This was an immense sum by the day’s standards totaling over $3,000,000 in today’s dollars.

The March 1904 the trial must have been seen at the time as an event of the then new century with the defense and prosecution employing some fourteen lawyers between them. More sensationalism occurred when one of the prosecuting attorneys L. D. Hotchkiss met an untimely end in a “…sudden and shocking death by drowning…” as recounted in the Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Attorney General of Kansas.

During the trial Clyde Wilson testified on his own behalf as reported in the March 2, 1904 edition of the Kansas City Star:

“I came to Oak Ranch, October 7, 1902, and worked as a stenographer and bookkeeper. I went with Chauncey Dewey and his men June 3, 1903, to the Alpheus Berry place. I had a Winchester rifle and a six-shooter. When we arrived there I was standing close to Dewey when the Berry boys rode up. They dismounted and tied their horses to a wagon. They pulled their revolvers around in front of them and when they advanced three or four steps one of them said: ‘You will take nothing from here to-day.’ As he said this they all put their hands on their pistols. Dewey said to them: ‘Stop, stop where you are.’ They fired at us. Roy Berry fired directly at Dewey and Burch Berry fired at McBride. When they put their hands on their pistols, I put a cartridge into my Winchester. When the Berrys fired I saw a horse drop. Our men then fired. Two of the Berry boys fell. I saw Dewey shoot. I did not bring my gun to my shoulder until after the Berry boys fell.”

Clyde Wilson TrialAbove: Proceedings of Clyde Wilson’s, Chauncey Dewey’sand William McBride’s murder trial as it appeared in the February 20, 1904, edition of the Salina Sun. Source: Newspapers.com/Salina Sun.

The trail ended as many probably thought it would with the well connected and equally well moneyed Dewey faction being freed after a verdict of not guilty was returned. Chauncey Dewey, Clyde Wilson, McBride, and the entire jury were burned in effigy by an irate mob outside the courthouse. The surviving Berry’s filed a wrongful death suit against Chauncey Dewey, Clyde Wilson and William McBride –  the other ex-soldier in Dewey’s service. That case dragged on for years before finally being resolved for some $15,000 in the late 1920s in favor of the Berrys.

In 1910 Clyde Wilson was ranch manager for one Albert Bretschye in Ashland Kansas. Working with him was another of his younger brothers, Trace Wilson. Clyde Wilson must have retained some of his ill-gotten local notoriety because in April of the same year he was reported in the Salina Evening Journal as being near death as the result of an automobile accident that occurred in Topeka. As if to prove that old associations died hard the same newspaper reported later in May that Wilson had recovered enough to finish his convalescence in Chicago but that he first planned to stop at the Dewey ranch and meet up with his former employer Chauncey Dewey, who was also planning to visit Chicago.

Wilson married sometime before 1915. He and his wife Hattie had one daughter named Ida Helen born in Colorado on 10 May 1915. A few years later with the U.S. entry into World War One, he re-enlisted in the army on 2 April 1918 joining the 9th Recruit Company at his old rank of Sergeant and seemingly spent the rest of that year training recruits at Fort Logan, Colorado. He received an honorable discharge on 27 December 1918. After the war, Wilson was in the oil and gas production business and by 1940 we were City Clerk in Fredonia, Kansas. He must have found that both professions were much better suited to a family man than his old gunslinging cowboy days were.

Clyde Wilson Medal Group

Above: A reconstruction of Clyde G. Wilson’s medal group as it would have appeared at the end of World War One.

The first medal from left is the Philippine Campaign Medal which Wilson was entitled to for service with the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry from 1898 to 1899.

Second (center) is the U.S. version of the World War One Victory Medal which Wilson earned while serving with the 9th Recruit Company, General Service Infantry at Fort Logan, Colorado in 1918. His medal was issued without clasps since the duration of his service during the war took place within the borders of the United States.

Third (far left) is the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry Spanish-American War service Badge issued to members of the 20th upon their return to Kansas in 1899. Originally intended to be a State of Kansas honor to her veterans, the Legislature failed to pass the required bill whereupon the Kansas Department of the Grand Army of the Republic stepped up and
produced the badge themselves for presentation to this younger generation of veterans. Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

In December 1927 Wilson applied for military pension benefits based upon his service with the 20th Kansas Volunteers. Wilson was still active in August 1945 when he served as a pallbearer for William Dillener one of his old comrades in arms in the 20th Kansas
Volunteers. Clyde G. Wilson died on 3 August 1958, probably with his boots off at the ripe old age of 80 and was buried with military honors at Gypsum Hill Cemetery in Salina, Kansas.

Clyde Wilson Obituary

Above: Clyde Wilson’s obituary which appeared in the August 4 1958 edition of the Salina Journal. No mention of his part in the Dewey-Berry Feud is mentioned. Even as late as 1958 old animosities may very well have still lingered. Source: Newspapers.com/Salina Journal.

Samuel Elmer Brick was born on 8 January 1878 at Browns Creek, Kansas the son of George W. Brick, a painter by trade and Mary Ann Clanin.

Brick enlisted in the 20th Kansas Volunteer Infantry at the same time as Clyde Wilson in Saline, Kansas. Based upon the photograph it seems that Brick was the first of the two to receive a promotion – in this case to corporal. Brick was slightly wounded at Caloocan on 10 February. This wounding is mentioned in the regimental history but apparently never officially recorded.

After returning home his life took quite a different turn than that of his gunslinging friend Clyde Wilson. He returned to the family home and like so many young men in those days took up his father’s trade as a painter.  Brick married his wife Lillian BellePadgett sometime around 1906 and by 1910 had three children and now owned his own paint store – the Salina Paint & Paper Company. In 1920 his business is listed simply as a paint and paper store.

He seems to have had a certain business acumen since in 1919 he registered a trademark with the U.S. Patent Office for Nurex Adhesive Paste which based upon the nature of his business must have been a type of wallpaper paste. He held a patent (1920) for a type of bookbinding gum to be used for the making of pads of paper. Reading through his patent (No. 1,341,782) it is obvious that Brick had more than a casual grasp of chemistry. Two additional patents were also held for waterproof and bookbinding gums. (Nos. 1,389,574 and 1,384,575).

Elmer Brick Patent Drawing

Above: Elmer Brick’s drawing for his 1920 patent for improved book/pad binding gum (No. 1341782A). Brick would be granted at least three such patents. Source: Google Patents.

Brick also stayed active with his old military associates. While attending the 10th Annual Encampment of the United Spanish War Veterans in 1913 he was appointed Aide-de-Camp to the Commander-in-Chief.

During World War One Brick registered for the draft on 12 September 1918. I have found no record of him serving during the war but with the war coming to an end in November this is not all that surprising.

Samuel Elmer Brick died on 8 December 1920 at the age of 42 due to complications arising from Lymphatic Leukemia in Dallas, Texas. He was buried in his home town of Salina, Kansas. One wonders if his death had resulted from exposure to the numerous chemicals related to his chosen profession.

Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick Reverse

Above: The reverse side of the above carte de visite showing the period inscription identifying the subjects of the photograph Clyde Wilson and Elmer Brick. Photo Source: Edward T. Garcia/www.soldiersofthequeen.com

A Window Into the Past

This well-worn three-page letter is not perhaps that remarkable as far as such things go. It is not in the hand of the great or famous, nor does it recount some historic deed or event. The contents are in fact rather mundane in nature, consisting of the thoughts of an otherwise forgotten soldier of the queen put to paper for the benefit of his brother and sister. One might consider the most remarkable thing is that these three small, yellowed and tattered pages survived at all after almost 150 years, but perhaps, more importantly, the letter opened a larger window onto the life of its sender.

shaw letter 1 copy

Above: The first page of then Corporal Thomas Shaw of the 6th Regiment of Foot to his brother and sister, probably while still posted to Ireland with the regiment’s 2nd Battalion. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

Dated February 9, 1874, the letter was written by the newly promoted No. 205 Corporal William Shaw of “A” Company, 2nd Battalion, the 6th Regiment of Foot to his Brother and sister from Belfast, Ireland. Shaw begins his letter in the most of traditional of manners:

“Dear Brother & Sister, It is with pleasure I’ve now sit down to write to you hoping these will find you all at home enjoying good & perfect health…”

I will not offer a complete or verbatim transcription of Shaw’s letter but he writes about events that today would be related via a phone call or even text messages. He mentions his recent promotion to corporal, inquires after other family members including his father, uncles, aunts and various children.

“I am promoted corporal & left the drummers & gone to my duty and that we are now getting on very nicely…”

shaw letter 2 copy

Above: The second page of Shaw’s February 1874 letter home. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

While Shaw’s letter consists primarily of familiar small talk, the mention of his regiment, and service number led to the discovery of his January 1878 discharge papers. These offer us a view of his life with the “colours” as well as a rather sad end to his military service.

Born about 1838 at St. Mark’s, Lincolnshire, Shaw attested with the 2/6th on 4 November 1857. He was appointed drummer on 1 October 1865 and then corporal (for the first time) on17 May 1868. On 11 July 1868 Shaw was reduced to private after being convicted by courts-martial for being drunk on duty. He was reappointed drummer on 1 September 1868 and promoted corporal for the second time (his promotion mentioned in his letter) on 3 February 1874. Promoted sergeant on 1 March 1876, Shaw was detached from duty with his regiment for service with the 3rd Warwick Militia on 25 May 1876. He would be discharged from service due to “Being found unfit for further military service” on 17 February 1878.

Although Shaw did not serve actively in any campaigns, he did see a bit of the empire, being stationed overseas: at Gibraltar for a bit more than four years, the Ionian Islands for just under two and the West Indies for almost four. In spite of his 1868 court-martial and resulting demotion, towards the end of his career, he was awarded the Long Service & Good Conduct Medal.

Being found unfit for further military service was not an uncommon happenstance in Victoria’s army. A long-serving soldier could be rendered thus as the result of wounds received in battle, from injuries acquired performing garrison duty or any of the sicknesses or diseases found both at home and the far-flung corners of the empire. For Shaw, it was something more ominous. One the second page of his discharge papers giving the reason for his leaving the army, boldly in red ink is the word “Insane”.

On his medical report sheet, a more specific diagnosis is given as “Paralysis of the Insane”. This is an archaic medical term that apparently most often referred to serious mental decline brought on by previous syphilitic infections. The condition almost always resulted in death of the patient, often quite soon after diagnosis. Interestingly Shaw’s medical history sheet lists the cause of his condition as “climatic conditions” and as the result of “Long service in the Mediterranean and W. Indies where he was much affected by the sun.” Shaw’s cause of Shaw’s diagnosis was not the usual one and this is further reflected on his medical sheet by his regimental surgeon who wrote: “A hopeful case. Is partially able to his own support.

In any event, upon discharge Shaw was committed to the hospital at Bow (probably St. Clements) for a period of 12 months. Former Sergeant Thomas Shaw disappears from the records after this. His fate remains unknown as does his family origins.

shaw letter 3 copy

Above: The third page of Corporal Shaw’s to his brother and sister. Throughout the letter, Shaw seems to address himself in the plural “we” form, but in fact, it appears that his sister Elizabeth was living with him while posted to Ireland. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia/soldiersofthequeen.com.

Postmark USS Arizona Part II

Not long ago while perusing a well-known online auction website, I came across this used postal cover from 1935. It was originally mailed to Miss Marjorie Ogle of Glendora, California and was postmarked onboard the tragically fated battleship USS Arizona. Postal covers postmarked on the Arizona (as well as other US warships of the time) are not uncommon since commemorative covers were available by subscription service to collectors. I posted an article regarding on one of these commemorative Arizona covers here.

Schuman Arizona Cover Front

Above: Addressed to his future bride to be Marjorie Ogle, the envelope to Storekeeper 1st Class Herman Lincoln Schuman’s letter is postmarked March 7, 1935, on board the USS. Arizona. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Two things caught my eye with this cover. One was the hometown of the addressee Marjorie Lois Ogle which also happens to be where I live – Glendora, California. The second was the fact that it was not a commemorative/souvenir issue but a cover from a personal letter sent by a member of the crew of the Arizona apparently to his girlfriend or fiancé on March 7, 1935. At the time the Arizona was moored at San Pedro, California with the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Battle Fleet.

The cover (and sadly now missing letter) was mailed by Storekeeper First Class (SK1/c) Herman Lincoln Schuman and needless to say I began investigating his story even before purchasing the cover. The uneasy question in the back of my mind was as to whether Schuman was still aboard the Arizona six years later at Pearl Harbor on the Day of Infamy.

Schuman Arizona Cover Back

Above: The reverse side of the envelope which one held Schuman’s letter to his future wife identifying the sender as a member of the ill-fated battleship’s crew. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Herman Lincoln Schuman was born in Connecticut on February 12, 1912, to Otto and Elizabeth Schuman. Herman had two younger sisters, Grace (born about 1916) and May (born about 1919). Little can be known about Schuman’s early life and schooling. Scant records indicate that Schuman enlisted in the navy on March 9, 1935, and reported aboard the Arizona on the 23rd of that month – not long after James Cagney and company took over the ship during the filming of Here Comes the Navy. The very short time between enlistment and assignment implied that most of Schuman’s training took place actively onboard ship.

In the later part of 1935 Schuman would have taken part in fleet exercises and made port at Balboa, Panama. Budget cuts led to the ship being held in port for good portions of 1936 -1938 and in 1937 Schuman would marry Marjorie Ogle. The new couple took an apartment in Long Beach, California.

Schuman’s new bride was born at Enders, Nebraska on July 24, 1917, to George Washington Ogle and Orrilla Vennie Cooney. The Ogle family headed west in the early 1920s, settling in Glendora.  Marjorie’s mother died on May 5, 1923. Exactly how a blue water sailor like Herman Schuman and Marjorie, a girl from the orange growing inland town of Glendora came to meet is for now part of the story lost to history.

Schuman Arizona Report of Changes

Above: A section of the USS Arizona’s Report of Changes (ship’s muster book) for March 31, 1939. Herman L. Schuman is listed along with his service number – 375 50 95 – as well as his date, and place of enlistment – March 9, 1936, at San Pedro, California. His then rating is also given – Storekeeper 2nd Class (SK2c). Source: National Archives.

Fleet exercises took Schuman and the Arizona to Hawaiian waters in 1938 and again in 1940. It was then on to Bremerton, Washington for a long-needed overhaul which was completed in January 1941. The Arizona would make one final visit to Long Beach, California in June – July 1941. While Herman and Marjorie would have had a long overdue reunion, little did the couple know it would be the last time they would ever see one another.

The Arizona returned to Pearl Harbor and took part in additional training exercises in prelude to a war most knew was inevitable. Inevitable as the coming was seemed to be, the Japanese attack in the early morning hours of December 7, 1941, took a sleeping Pearl Harbor by total surprise. Soon after the beginning of the attack, the Arizona beat to quarters and battle stations were quickly manned. The crew’s gallant efforts came to naught. I rapid succession the Arizona was hit by eight bombs from Japanese warplanes. One bomb glanced off turret no. 2, pierced the deck and detonated in the forward magazine. The resulting explosion and fire instantaneously destroyed the forward half of the ship and the lives of 1,177 of the crewmen on board her snuffed out. In the immediate aftermath of the attack and during later salvage operations on the wreck many bodies were recovered but some 900 were declared unrecoverable. The ship would become their tomb. SK1/c Herman Lincoln Schuman is among those 900 whose still rest beneath the waters of Pearl Harbor.

Schuman’s widow Marjorie would remarry during the war to another navy man. She passed away at Benson, Arizona in 1998.

Above: A wartime film that combined a recreation of the attack on Pearl Harbor with actual newsreel film of the event including the massive explosion which destroyed the USS Arizona. Source: The National Archives/YouTube.

Researching Herman Lincoln Schuman has been problematic due to the paucity of military records. Only a few pages of ship’s musters have been found for the Arizona that mentions him with these being for between 1939 and December 31, 1941.  Not much can be gleaned from these other than him being on the ship on a given date and his then given rating and his service number – 357 50 94. An inquiry made to the National Archives several months ago regarding acquiring copies of his service records has so far gone unanswered. Service records would provide much in-depth information relating to Schuman’s naval career. Additionally, after exhaustive searches, no photograph of Herman Lincoln Schuman has been found. Again, Schuman’s service records probably contain a photograph of him.

Note: In 2015 an extensive research project was initiated at the National Personnel Records Center in St. Louis, Missouri into the service jackets (service records) of the officers and crewmen who died on the Arizona on December 7th. The project included digitally scanning the contents of all 1177 service jackets of those that died on the Arizona.  As of May 2016, the USS Arizona Casualty Project was supposed to be completed in one and a half years and the results made public. As of this posting I have not been able to find any information online as to the current status of the project. A message to the Pacific Historic Parks – USS Arizona Memorial Facebook page as to the status of the project may answer the question as to the availability of Herman Schuman’s naval records.

 

The Wartime Odessey of Yang Kyoungjong

When the photograph below appeared in the American press not long after D-Day the soldier in question gave rise to the belief that Japanese soldiers where fighting alongside their German allies on the beaches of Normandy. While this possibility had long been pondered (as far back as 1941 some U.S. Naval personnel swore they saw Nazi planes over Pearl Harbor) the actual story behind this photo and the unlikely soldier in question – Korean-born Yang Kyoungjong – is in reality much more remarkable if not downright improbable.

Yang-Kyoungjong

Above: A U.S. military press photograph taken at Normandy not long after the June 6, 1944 landings depicting a rather disheveled and forlorn looking POW in German uniform. Although unidentified in the original photograph, some believe that the man may be Yang Kyoungjong. Others postulate that this soldier may have been a POW from Soviet Asia who had been pressed into German service. The photo’s original caption incorrectly identifies the subject as Japanese. Photo: National Archives and Records Administration.

Born on March 3, 1920, in what is today’s North Korea, Yang Kyoungjong was sent as a laborer to Manchuria by the Japanese occupiers of Korea in 1938. Once there he was conscripted into the Japanese Kwangtung Army which had set up a puppet regime of Manchukuo in the Chinese province. At the although officially at peace the Soviet Union and Japan were in fact in a low-grade shooting war. The confrontations escalated to the point of several pitched battles, during one of which – Khalkhyn Gol – Yang Kyoungjong found himself captured by Soviet Forces. The year was 1939.

Yang Kyoungjong was sent to a Siberian gulag – a virtual death sentence – along with other Japanese POWs. Yang would receive a reprieve of sorts after Hitler ordered the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Initial Soviet defeats left Stalin so hardpressed for troops that he offered pardons the prisoners provided they volunteer to military service against Germany. Yang Kyoungjong volunteered for service in the Soviet army probably more to escape death in a gulag than anything else but his previous experiences in fighting along the Manchurian border would have ill-prepared him for the unimaginable carnage of Europe’s eastern front.

Yang Kyoungjong would have found himself packed like cattle along with thousands of other unwilling Soviet conscripts headed west along the Trans Siberian Railroad. The 2011 Korean film My Way depicts Yang Kyoungjong taking part in the Battle of Stalingrad but I have found no information confirming this. He apparently took part in the Third Battle of Kharkov in the eastern Ukraine (1943) where he was captured by the Germans.

By this time Nazi Germany found itself in the same predicament that the Soviet Union had just a couple years earlier – suffering from a dire shortage of troops and she resorted to the same dubious solution to the problem. Soviet, as well as other Eastern European prisoners, were conscripted for service in the Wehrmacht. Many of these troops – volunteers and otherwise – were organized into Ost-Bataillonen (Eastern Battalions) with the intent that they perform labor duties in occupied territories freeing up regular German units for more important frontline service. Once again Yang Kyoungjong found himself in a new uniform of another army.

Above: Of related interest in the 2011 Korean film My Way which is loosely based on Yang Kyoungjong’s wartime experiences during World War Two.  Here is a link to a trailer for the film which makes for some pretty spectacular viewing even if it is filled to overflowing with some big-time anachronisms such as the Iowa class battleship USS Missouri bombarding the Normandy beachhead.

Yang Kyoungjong along with the rest of his fellow Ost-Bataillone members were apparently deployed to the area around the Cotentin peninsula, close by Utah Beach in Normandy, France sometime prior to the Allied landings on D-Day.  Uninspired and completely unprepared for battle the Ost-Bataillonen not surprisingly contributed virtually nothing to the German defense of Normandy. Yang appears to have surrendered to American forces not long after June 6.

Interestingly a wartime account made by Lieutenant Robert Brewer, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (of Band of Brothers fame) mentions his regiment capturing four Asian soldiers in German uniform not long after D-Day. Could one of these four men have been Yang Kyoungjong? In any event, Yang was reportedly sent to an American POW holding camp in England prior to being shipped to a permanent camp on the United States where he remained until 1947. One might guess that Yang was surprised not to have been shoehorned into an American uniform and deployed to fight the Japanese in the Pacific. Had that happened this remarkable journey would have indeed gone full circle.

After release, Yang declined repatriation to Korea and settled in Illinois. He is said to have passed away there on April 7, 1992.

So that is the remarkable story of Yang Kyoungjong. Remarkable? Yes, but is the story true? I was rather disappointed when after considerable research I was, and have been unable to find any verifiable/primary sources confirming the tale. For example, I can find no newspaper mention of Yang Kyoungjong with the exception of a 2012 review of the book The Second World War by Anthony Beevor. One might assume that given Yang’s notoriety an obituary might have been published in a local or national paper. None have been found. Versions of Yang’s life appear online in dozens of places, and while remarkably similar in detail, none provided any links to reliable and verifiable primary source material. Even a 2005 investigative documentary by the Seoul Broadcasting System found no evidence that Yang Kyoungjong ever existed.

It appears to this reporter at least that Yang’s story is one of the better peices of World War Two apocrypha. While it does not seem to be true, it is one tale that I wish could be verified.

image

Above: A group of Asian POWs in German Army uniforms under guard on board a U.S. Navy vessel sometime after D-Day. Being transported to a POW camp in England, many if not all of these men were probably Ost-Bataillonen conscripts from the eastern reaches of the Soviet Union, some may have indeed been Korean and whose forgotten tale parallels that of Yang Kyoungjong. Photo: Photo: National Archives and Records Administration.

 

 

 

A Map of Barsoom: Or Mars as John Carter knew it.

Returning to the Red Planet – or more properly one man’s vision of that same Red Planet, I present to you A Geographical Chart of the Planet Barsoom as beautifully drawn by Larry Ivie in 1962. This map was intended to illustrate the locals visited by Edgar Rice Burroughs’ John Carter in his adventures which began in A Princess of Mars. This 11 inch by 17-inch map was included as a supplement to The Reader’s Guide to Barsoom and Amtor by David G. Van Arnam “and others” (1963). An unbound 84-page “fanzine”, the Guide is something of a “Holy Grail” for Edgar Rice Burroughs fans and is not commonly encountered in today’s collector’s market. Perhaps it is best to describe the Guide as quite rare. Two editions were published with the first numbering 500 copies of which 200 were signed and numbered. Signed first printings can sell for upwards of $500.00 USD. The unsigned the second printing also produced in a very limited run. This map comes from a copy of the second printing.

Barsoom Map

Above: Larry Ivie’s map of Barsoom (Mars) which was included as a supplement in The Reader’s Guide to Barsoom by David G. Van Arnam (1963).  11 inches by 17 inches, Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

The map is in many ways the culmination of John Carter fans attempts at overlaying Burroughs’ Barsoom (the name given by Burroughs’ Martians to their home planet) with the geographical features of the real planet Mars. Naturally, this process has met with mixed results at best given the ever-changing amount of knowledge available on Mars itself. In 1963 when this map was created Mars was still that canal-crossed planet that captured Percival Lowell’s imagination some 80 years earlier.

Barsoom Map Detail

Above: A detail from Larry Ivie’s map of Barsoom depicting Burroughs’ hero John Carter along with one of the huge multi-armed green Martians to the left of Carter’s and at right Carter’s ever faithful pet calot named Woola. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

Barsoom Map Detail 2

Above: A detail of the main portion of A Geographical Chart of the Planet Barsoom. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

ERB-In-His-Office

Above: John Carter creator Edgar Rice Burroughs (1875-1950) in his office with another of his wildly successful creations Tarzan. As a young man, Burroughs would serve as a trooper in the 7th U.S. Cavalry at Fort Grant, Arizona Territory before receiving a medical discharge in 1897. He would then launch himself into a career as one of the great science fiction/fantasy authors of the early 20th Century. Image: thejohncarterfiles.com

While several dozen maps of Barsoom have been published at various times and places – Burroughs created the first himself – none have been able to reconcile the real and imagined versions of the planet with any great success. The reason for this is quite simple – Burroughs wrote The Princess of Mars in 1917 when almost nothing was known about the actual surface of the planet. In a way, this worked out quite well for the author since he was in no way constrained by actual planetary science and could give his fertile imagination free reign to create at his own whim which he did with great abandon. A good example of his sidestepping what one might have considered major technical issues, Burroughs had his hero John Carter fall asleep in an Arizona cave and simply wake up on Barsoom. He would later return to Earth in much the same manner.

Barsoom Map Krenkel

Above: The special title plate by illustrator Roy G. Krenkel which was included in the Guide. 8 1/2 inches by 11 inches, Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia. 

Barsoom Map Preface

Above: The Guide’s preface by Dick Lupoff gives an excellent impression of the publication’s overall look and handmade quality. Mostly typewritten, the Guide’s 85 pages were unbound and mailed to subscribers looseleaf in a large envelope. In a nod to fans, Lupoff signed and dated the preface from “New York, Jasoom”. Jasoom being the Martian name for Earth in the John Carter stories. 8 1/2 inches by 11 inches. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

 

 

All Aboard for Mars!

I am an avid collector of memorabilia connected with the planet Mars and the following pages of correspondence are probably the strangest Mars-related items in my possession. The following handwritten letter typed lyrics and music manuscript was sent sixty years ago to Professor Charles E. Waring in 1958 by a Mrs. Beatrice O’Malley of Dublin Ireland while he was head of the chemistry department at the University of Connecticut.

Mrs. O’Malley seems to have been enamored with the budding U.S. space program and sent her song and accompanying music to Professor Waring after reading about what must have been a hypothetical mission to Mars. The song originally titled The Satellite Song and then updated to All Aboard for Mars by Mrs. O’Malley when she read about the proposed trip to Mars. Mrs. O’Malley states that the lyrics were her original work and noted on the back of the sheet music that the tune was the work of a Mrs. Madge Carroll. Mrs. O’Malley dedicated the song to the U.S. Army.

Mars Song Letter

Above: Beatrice O’Malley’s 1958 handwritten letter to Professor Charles Waring of the University of Connecticut. She appears to have originally written the enclosed song and music to commemorate the successful launch of America’s first satellite Explorer I in January 1958. Mrs. O’Malley apparently updated her song and music after reading an erroneous news article about an impending U.S. manned mission to Mars. Why she chose Professor Waring as the recipient of her musical endeavor is unknown. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

Mars Song Lyrics

Above: Beatrice O’Malley’s annotated typed lyrics for the Satellite Song, retitled by her as All Aboard for Mars. She dedicated the lyrics to the U.S. Army which oversaw the Explorer I program. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia

Mars Song Music

Above: Beatrice’s music manuscript for All Aboard for Mars. I have made no attempt to have the music played. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

Professor Waring wrote back a kind letter to Mrs. O’Malley and seemed to be rather impressed with the music (I have never asked anyone to play it so am unable to offer my opinion on the matter) and suggests that she copyright her work.  He also mentions his time in Ireland during World War II and his affection for the country and the Irish people.

Mars Song Response

Above: Charles Waring’s file copy of his thoughtful response to Beatrice O’Malley’s letter of 12 June 1958. Source: Collection of Edward T. Garcia.

The following biography of Charles Waring by John Tanaka, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, at the University of Connecticut where Waring’s papers are held:

Charles E. Waring was born in Philadelphia, PA, in 1909 and attended Muskingum College for his undergraduate work (B.Sc., 1931). He then went to Ohio State University where he earned the Ph.D. in 1936. While at Ohio State, he met Geraldine Howald. On December 19th, 1936, Waring with a bright new Ph.D. also acquired a wife, Geraldine. In 1936, Waring was hired as an instructor of chemistry at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. In 1939, he was one of five to be awarded the Lalor Foundation award for proficiency in chemical research. He chose to carry on his research at Oxford University, England, in collaboration with the internationally famous authority on chemical kinetics, Dr. C. N. Hinshelwood.

In the period 1936 to 1946, he rose from instructor to assistant professor at Brooklyn Poly. It was during this period that he initiated his research in the fields of kinetics and mechanism of gas and liquid phase reactions and free radical reactions; kinetics of fast reactions at ultra-high pressures; kinetics and thermodynamics of solid and liquid propellant systems; and combustion mechanisms of high energy fuels.

In 1946, Waring joined the faculty at the University of Connecticut as Head of the Chemistry Department. There were eight on the teaching staff in the department at the time. When he relinquished his administrative duties in 1966 to return to full-time teaching, the department had grown to 22 members. Waring was able to carry on a full research program in addition to his administrative duties. During his tenure at the University, he served as an adviser for 24 Ph.D. students and nine M.S. students. It was under Waring’s leadership that the department was one of the leaders in the University to institute the Ph.D. program.

In addition to the academic research carried on in his research laboratories, Waring was very much involved in the application end of the science. From 1942 to 1946, he was a member of London Mission, OSRD (Office of Strategic Reseach Development). From 1946-1966, he was a Technical Aide, Division 16, NDRC. He spent the summers of 1951 to 1953 in Europe and England on a scientific and technical assignment for the U.S. Government. In 1961, while on leave from the University, he served as technical director and head of the Research Department, Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake. For his wartime service, he was awarded the Presidential Citation for Merit (WWII) for contributions in the field of physics, optics, and technical intelligence.

Charles Waring died on February 16, 1981.

Above: Not all past visions of Mars were kindly. In this apocalyptic telling of H. G. Wells’ War of the Worlds titled The Great Martian War the Martians launch their invasion of Earth while we humans are in the midsts of World War One. Source: www.history.ca